Su YY, Wang SH, Chou HC, Chen CY, Hsieh WS, Tsao PN, et al. Morbidity and mortality of very low birth weight infants in Taiwan-changes in 15 years: a population based study. J Formos Med Assoc. 2016;115(12):1039–45.
Varga P, Berecz B, Gasparics A, Dombi Z, Varga Z, Jeager J, et al. Morbidity and mortality trends in very-very low birth weight premature infants in light of recent changes in obstetric care. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;211:134–9.
Ballot DE, Chirwa T, Ramdin T, Chirwa L, Mare I, Davies VA, et al. Comparison of morbidity and mortality of very low birth weight infants in a central Hospital in Johannesburg between 2006/2007 and 2013. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:20.
Guinsburg R, de Almeida MF, de Castro JS, Silveira RC, Caldas JP, Fiori HH, et al. Death or survival with major morbidity in VLBW infants born at Brazilian neonatal research network centers. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(6):1005–9.
Lee HC, Kurtin PS, Wight NE, Chance K, Cucinotta-Fobes T, Hanson-Timpson TA, et al. A quality improvement project to increase breast milk use in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):1679–87.
Cacho NT, Harrison NA, Parker LA, Padgett KA, Lemas DJ, Marcial GE, et al. Personalization of the microbiota of donor human milk with mother's own milk. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1470.
Brandstetter S, Mansen K, DeMarchis A, Nguyen Quyhn N, Engmann C, Israel-Ballard K. A decision tree for donor human milk: an example tool to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. Front Pediatr. 2018;6:324.
World Health Organization. The World Health Organization's infant feeding recommendation. https://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/infantfeeding_recommendation/en/. Accessed 1 May 2001.
Mizuno K, Shimizu T, Ida S, Ito S, Inokuchi M, Ohura T, et al. Policy statement of enteral nutrition for preterm and very low birthweight infants. Pediatr Int. 2020;62(2):124–7.
Lapillonne A, Bronsky J, Campoy C, Embleton N, Fewtrell M, Fidler Mis N, et al. Feeding the late and moderately preterm infant: a position paper of the european society for paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition committee on nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;69(2):259–70.
Maffei D, Schanler RJ. Human milk is the feeding strategy to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis! Semin Perinatol. 2017;41(1):36–40.
Miller J, Tonkin E, Damarell R, McPhee A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of human milk feeding and morbidity in very low birth weight infants. Nutrients. 2018;10(6):707–42.
Dritsakou K, Liosis G, Valsami G, Polychronopoulos E, Souliotis K, Skouroliakou M. Mother's breast milk supplemented with donor milk reduces hospital and health service usage costs in low-birthweight infants. Nutrients. 2016;40:109–13.
Santos J, Pearce SE, Stroustrup A. Impact of hospital-based environmental exposures on neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27(2):254–60.
Seaton SE, Barker L, Draper ES, Abrams KR, Modi N, Manktelow BN. Estimating neonatal length of stay for babies born very preterm. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2019;104(2):182–6.
Osnabrugge RL, Speir AM, Head SJ, Jones PG, Ailawadi G, Fonner CE, et al. Cost, quality, and value in coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;148(6):2729–35.
Stambough JB, Nunley RM, Curry MC, Steger-May K, Clohisy JC. Rapid recovery protocols for primary total hip arthroplasty can safely reduce length of stay without increasing readmissions. J Arthroplast. 2015;30(4):521–6.
Merritt TA, Pillers D, Prows SL. Early NICU discharge of very low birth weight infants- a critical review and analysis. Semin Neonatol. 2003;8(2):95–115.
Baker A. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. BMJ. 2001;323(7322):1192.
Turner M, Chur-Hansen A, Winefield H. Mothers’ experiences of the NICU and a NICU support group programme. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2015;33(2):165–79.
Holditch-Davis D, Santos H, Levy J, White-Traut R, O'Shea TM, Geraldo V, et al. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants. Infant Behav Dev. 2015;41:154–63.
Flacking R, Lehtonen L, Thomson G, Axelin A, Ahlqvist S, Moran VH, et al. Closeness and separation in neonatal intensive care. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101(10):1032–7.
Muraskas J, Parsi K. The cost of saving the tiniest lives: NICUs versus prevention. Virtual Mentor. 2008;10(10):655–8.
Verd S, Porta R, Botet F, Gutiérrez A, Ginovart G, Barbero AH, et al. Hospital outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after introduction of donor milk to supplement mother's milk. Breastfeed Med. 2015;10(3):150–5.
Yuan Z, Akl E, Schünemann H. Using systematic reviews in guideline development: the GRADE approach. Res Synth Methods. 2019;10(3):312–29.
Lo CK, Mertz D, Loeb M. Newcastle-Ottawa scale: comparing reviewers’ to authors’ assessments. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014;14:45.
Wan X, Wang W, Liu J, Tong T. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014;14:135.
Parker LA, Krueger C, Sullivan S, Kelechi T, Mueller M. Effect of breast milk on hospital costs and length of stay among very low-birth-weight infants in the NICU. Adv Neonatal Care. 2012;12(4):254–9.
Assad M, Elliott MJ, Abraham JH. Decreased cost and improved feeding tolerance in VLBW infants fed an exclusive human milk diet. J Perinatol. 2016;36(3):216–20.
Lloyd ML, Malacova E, Hartmann B, Simmer K. A clinical audit of the growth of preterm infants fed predominantly pasteurised donor human milk v.those fed mother's own milk in the neonatal intensive care unit. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(9):1–8.
Seok M, Ryu SW. Exclusive human breast milk versus bovine milk-based formula in the feeding of very low birth weight infants. Clin Nutr. 2016;35:43.
Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawöger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):562–7.
Tshamala D, Pelecanos A, Davies MW. Factors associated with infants receiving their mother's own breast milk on discharge from hospital in a unit where pasteurised donor human milk is available. J Paediatr Child Health. 2018;54(9):1016–22.
Trang S, Zupancic JAF, Unger S, Kiss A, Bando N, Wong S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of supplemental donor milk versus formula for very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3):e20170737.
O'Connor DL, Gibbins S, Kiss A, Bando N, Brennan-Donnan J, Ng E, et al. Effect of supplemental donor human milk compared with preterm formula on neurodevelopment of very low-birth-weight infants at 18 months: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;316(18):1897–905.
Cristofalo EA, Schanler RJ, Blanco CL, Sullivan S, Trawoeger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, et al. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants. J Pediatr. 2013;163(6):1592–5.
Schanler RJ, Lau C, Hurst NM, Smith EO. Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers’ own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2005;116(2):400–6.
Chowning R, Radmacher P, Lewis S, Serke L, Pettit N, Adamkin DH. A retrospective analysis of the effect of human milk on prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and postnatal growth. J Perinatol. 2016;36(3):221–4.
Colaizy TT, Carlson S, Saftlas AF, Morriss FH Jr. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:124.
Ginovart G, Gich I, Verd S. Human milk feeding protects very low-birth-weight infants from retinopathy of prematurity: a pre-post cohort analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(23):3790–5.
Hair AB, Peluso AM, Hawthorne KM, Perez J, Smith DP, Khan JY, et al. Beyond necrotizing enterocolitis prevention: improving outcomes with an exclusive human milk-based diet. Breastfeed Med. 2016;11(2):70–4.
Kim EJ, Lee NM, Chung SH. A retrospective study on the effects of exclusive donor human milk feeding in a short period after birth on morbidity and growth of preterm infants during hospitalization. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(35):e7970.
Kreissl A, Sauerzapf E, Repa A, Binder C, Thanhaeuser M, Jilma B, et al. Starting enteral nutrition with preterm single donor milk instead of formula affects time to full enteral feeding in very low birthweight infants. Acta Paediatr. 2017;106(9):1460–7.
Lee SH, Park JH, Kim CS, Lee SL. Clinical findings according to feeding diets in very low birth weight infants: human breast milk versus bovine milk-based formula. Neonatal Med. 2016;23(1):23–9.
Madore LS, Bora S, Erdei C, Jumani T, Dengos AR, Sen S. Effects of donor breastmilk feeding on growth and early neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants: an observational study. Clin Ther. 2017;39(6):1210–20.
Koo. W, Tank. S, Martin. S, Shi. R. Human milk and neurodevelopment in children with very low birth weight: a systematic review. Nutr J. 2014;13:94.
NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN). Extremely Preterm Birth Outcome Data. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/org/der/branches/ppb/programs/epbo-espanol/epbo_caseestimates. Accessed 2 Apr 2020.
Bender GJ, Koestler D, Ombao H, McCourt M, Alskinis B, Rubin LP, et al. Neonatal intensive care unit: predictive models for length of stay. J Perinatol. 2013;33(2):147–53.
Lee HC, Bennett MV, Schulman J, Gould JB. Accounting for variation in length of NICU stay for extremely low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2013;33(11):872–6.
Martin CR, Ling PR, Blackburn GL. Review of infant feeding: key features of breast milk and infant formula. Nutrients. 2016;8:5.
Mosca F, Gianni ML. Human milk: composition and health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;39(2):48–53.
Pines N, Mandel D, Mimouni FB, Moran Lev H, Mangel L, Lubetzky R. The effect of between-breast differences on human milk macronutrients content. J Perinatol. 2016;36(7):549–51.
O'Connor DL, Ewaschuk JB, Unger S. Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015;18(3):269–75.
Lucas A, Morley R, Cole T, Lister G, Leeson-Payne C. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet. 1992;339(8788):261–4.
Buckle A, Taylor C. Cost and cost-effectiveness of donor human milk to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis: systematic review. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12(9):528–36.
Kantorowska A, Wei JC, Cohen RS, Lawrence RA, Gould JB, Lee HC. Impact of donor milk availability on breast milk use and necrotizing enterocolitis rates. J Investig Med. 2016;137(3):e20153123.