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Table 2 Characteristics of included observational studies

From: The effect of donor human milk on the length of hospital stay in very low birthweight infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Year n of Infants Design Inclusion criteria Gestational age, wk Primary outcome(s) Groups Duration of intervention/observation Length of hospital stay, days (mean ± SD) Fortification Comments
Madore et al. [45] 2017 81 Retrospective case-control BW < 1000 g 27.1 ± 1.9/
27.3 ± 2.1
Growth; neuro-development; incidence of NEC Group MOM; Group DHM; Group PF First month of life 65.5 ± 35.5/86.5 ± 46.6 Bovine fortifier added to MOM and DHM. According to established criteria, DHM and PF groups were included. Gestational week refers to the two groups included.
Hair et al. [41] 2016 1587 Retrospective cohort BW < 1250 g 26.5 ± 2.5/
26.4 ± 2.3
Incidence of NEC; mortality MOM+ DHM + DHM-based fortifier;
MOM+ PF + bovine fortifier
32–34 corrected GA, or 60 days of life. 92.4 ± 54.5/94.7 ± 62.1 DHM-based fortifier added to DHM group. Bovine fortifier added to PF group.  
Ginovart et al. [40] 2016 186 Retrospective cohort BW < 1500 g 29.1 ± 2.9/
29.6 ± 2.9
Retinopathy of prematurity; incidence of NEC MOM+ DHM; MOM + PF Four weeks 65.0 ± 34.0/58.5 ± 32.0 Bovine fortifier added to MOM and DHM.  
Lee et al. [44] 2016 46 Retrospective cohort BW < 1500 g 27.8 ± 1.4/
28.0 ± 1.7
Morbidity, duration of parenteral nutrition MOM + DHM; MOM + PF Not specified. 61.1 ± 17.8/74.3 ± 21.5 Not specified.  
Kreissl et al. [43] 2017 283 Prospective study BW < 1500 g; GW < 32 w 27.6 (23.3–31.9)/
27.3 (23.3–21.3) [Median (range)]
Full enteral feeding; weight at discharge; incidence of NEC Group DHM; Group PF Not specified. 60.0 ± 38.2/94.0 ± 37.5 Bovine fortifier added to
MOM and DHM
 
Kim et al. [42] 2017 90 Retrospective cohort BW < 1500 g;
GW < 32w
32.3 ± 4.3/
31.0 ± 3.9
In-hospital mortality; broncho-pulmonary dysplasia; early-onset morbidity; growth parameters; incidence of NEC Group DHM; Group PF Not specified. 60.5 ± 19.9/75.5 ± 28.3 HM fortifier added to DHM group  
Colaizy et al. [39] 2012 171 Retrospective cohort BW ≤ 1250 g;
GA < 27 w
27 (25.6, 28.8)/ 28.43 (25.4, 29.6) [median (IQR)] Growth; morbidity; incidence of NEC < 25%HM + formula;
25–50%HM + formula;
51–75% HM + formula;
> 75% HM + formula
Not specified 77.3 ± 24.8/83.7 ± 54.9 Bovine-based fortifier added to > 75% DHM group, which is a subgroup of human milk < 25% HM + formula and > 75% DHM groups were included. Gestational week refers to the two groups included.
Chowning et al. [38] 2016 550 Retrospective cohort BW 1500 g 29.1 ± 2.4/
29.3 ± 2.8
Mortality rate; incidence of NEC surgical; NEC rate 0% HM;
< 50% DHM;
50% DHM;
90D HM
Not specified. 56.5 ± 22.0/65.9 ± 60.2 Bovine-based fortifier added to 90 HM group According to established criteria, 0% HM and 90 DHM groups were included. Gestational week refers to the two groups included.
  1. MOM mother’s own milk, PF preterm formula, DHM donor human milk, HM human milk, GA gestational age, BW birth weight, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis