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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized controlled trials

From: The effect of donor human milk on the length of hospital stay in very low birthweight infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Year n of Infants Design Inclusion criteria Gestational age, week Primary outcome(s) Intervention Duration of intervention/observation Length of hospital stay, days (mean ± SD) Fortification Comments
Schanler et al. [37] 2005 243 Single blinded GA ≤ 29 weeks 27 ± 2/
27 ± 2
Incidence of late-onset; sepsis and NEC Exclusively MOM
MOM + DHM
MOM + PF
90 days or discharge. 85.0 ± 53.0/ 90.0 ± 56.0 Bovine fortifier added to DHM group. According to established criteria, DHM and PF groups were included.
O’Connor et al. [35] 2016 363 Double blinded BW < 1500 g, enteral feeding within 7 day 27.5 ± 2.4/
27.8 ± 2.7
Bayley-III score at 18 month; the incidence of NEC MOM + DHM
MOM + PF
90 days or discharge. 77.2 ± 53.0/ 73.2 ± 39.2 Bovine fortifier added to DHM group. MOM + DHM group:
MOM = 58%
MOM + PF group:
MOM = 63%
Cristofalo et al. [36] 2013 53 Double blinded BW < 1250 g 27.7 ± 1.5/
27.5 ± 2.4
Duration of parenteral nutrition; the incidence of NEC Exclusive DHM
Exclusive PF
91 days of age or discharge, or ≥ 50% oral feedings. 80.0 ± 32.1/ 90.0 ± 50.2 DHM fortifier added to DHM group.  
Sullivan et al. [32] 2010 207 Single blinded BW 500–1250 g, intention to provide MOM. 27.2 ± 2.2/
27.3 ± 2.0
The incidence of NEC; parenteral nutrition, days; length of stay, days; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; weight gain MOM+DHM MOM + PF 91 days or oral feedings or discharge. 80.1 ± 34.8/ 81.3 ± 24.2 Donor added to DHM group; bovine fortifier added to PF group. Group HM100 and group PF received fortifier when enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d. The gestational week refers to the two groups rincluded.
  1. MOM mother’s own milk, PF preterm formula, DHM donor human milk, HM human milk, GA gestational age, BW birth weight, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis