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  1. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) (breast milk feeding without additional food or drink, except medicine) is associated with deceased risk of postnatal transmission of HIV from mother to child.

    Authors: John Okanda, George Otieno, John Kinuthia, Pam Kohler and Grace John-Stewart
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:51
  2. Although the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding is reduced considerably with the use of antiretroviral therapy, infant feeding by HIV positive mothers remains controversial. Weighing risks against ...

    Authors: Ancilla-Kate Umeobieri, Chinyere Mbachu, Benjamin S. C. Uzochukwu, Aniwada Elias, Babatunde Omotowo, Chuka Agunwa and Ikechukwu Obi
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:50
  3. Prelacteal feeding can be defined as giving any solid or liquid foods other than breast milk during the first three days after birth. It affects timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding p...

    Authors: Habtamu Temesgen, Ayenew Negesse, Wubetu Woyraw, Temesgen Getaneh and Molla Yigizaw
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:49
  4. Despite the ongoing efforts to improve infant feeding practices, low rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of complementary feeding have been reported in many countries. Systematic documentation of bre...

    Authors: Zainab Taha, Malin Garemo and Joy Nanda
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:48
  5. Due to the health and economic benefits of breast milk, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that for infants who cannot receive breast milk from their own mothers, the next preferred option is donat...

    Authors: Kenechukwu K. Iloh, Chidiebere DI. Osuorah, Ikenna K. Ndu, Isaac N. Asinobi, Ijeoma N. Obumneme-Anyim, Chijioke E. Ezeudu, Ukoha M. Oluchi, Onyinye U. Anyanwu, Uchenna Ekwochi, Christian C. Ogoke, Adaeze C. Ayuk and Herbert U. Obu
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:47
  6. There is a paucity of data regarding risk factors associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in urbanized areas of low-middle income countries (LMICs).

    Authors: Quynh-Nhi Thi Le, Khanh-Lam Phung, Van-Thuy Thi Nguyen, Katherine L. Anders, Minh-Nguyet Nguyen, Diem-Tuyet Thi Hoang, Thuy-Tien Thi Bui, Vinh-Chau Van Nguyen, Guy E. Thwaites, Cameron Simmons and Stephen Baker
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:46
  7. Maternal breastfeeding is a practice that is associated with multiple health benefits for mothers and children. One of the lowest rates of breastfeeding has been observed among Chinese women who immigrate to h...

    Authors: Juan Luis González-Pascual, Juana María Aguilar-Ortega, Laura Esteban-Gonzalo, Concepción Mesa-Leiva, Santiago Pérez-García and César Cardenete-Reyes
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:45
  8. Despite the substantial impact on child and maternal health, breastfeeding practices for infants remain at the suboptimum level in Bangladesh. Yet the understanding of why these practices are suboptimal, espec...

    Authors: Halima Khatun, Carly A Comins, Rajesh Shah, M Munirul Islam, Nuzhat Choudhury and Tahmeed Ahmed
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:44
  9. Donor human milk is the World Health Organization’s recommendation for infant feeding when the mother’s own breast milk is unavailable. Breast milk has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality and in low b...

    Authors: Penelope Reimers, Natalie Shenker, Gillian Weaver and Anna Coutsoudis
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:43
  10. We investigated the possible risk factors that could influence the likelihood of breastfeeding at 5 to 9 weeks postpartum with our primary aim being to analyse the associations between psychological vulnerabil...

    Authors: Daryl Jian An Tan, John Paul Lew, Maria Binte Jumhasan, Cynthia Pang, Rehena Sultana and Ban Leong Sng
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:42
  11. Implications of donor milk feedings on infant growth in resource limited settings remain uncertain. This knowledge gap includes the impact of donor milk availability on infant intake of mother’s own milk. Ther...

    Authors: Hayley Sparks, Lucy Linley, Jennifer L. Beaumont and Daniel T. Robinson
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:41
  12. While breastfeeding rates have improved globally, disparities in breastfeeding practices persist particularly in rural and low resource settings. In India, only 56% of Indian mothers practice exclusive breastf...

    Authors: Holly Nishimura, Karl Krupp, Savitha Gowda, Vijaya Srinivas, Anjali Arun and Purnima Madhivanan
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:40
  13. Suboptimal breastfeeding is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality across the world. Inconsistent data has hampered quantification of this practice, however, limiting breastfeeding promotion efforts. ...

    Authors: Thomas J. Roberts, Yana E. Hoy-Schulz, Kaniz Jannat and Julie Parsonnet
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:39
  14. Breastfeeding is a recognized means of ensuring optimal nutrition for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding an infant child breast milk only, and for optimal nutrition it is recommended tha...

    Authors: Osiyosola O. Osibogun, Tolulope F. Olufunlayo and Samson O. Oyibo
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:38
  15. Inappropriate infant feeding affects the probability of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and HIV-free survival of infants. However, in Ethiopia limited evidence exists regarding the infant feeding practice ...

    Authors: Daba Ejara, Demelash Mulualem and Samson Gebremedhin
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:37
  16. Since 2005, the national policy on breastfeeding in Sri Lanka is exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months, as recommended by World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of...

    Authors: Himali Erandathie Ratnayake and Dhammica Rowel
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:36
  17. The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages early initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth with the objective of saving children’s lives. There are few published research papers about f...

    Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Zainab Taha, Mohammed Ahmed A. Ahmed, Abdel Aziem A. Ali and Ishag Adam
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:34
  18. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid required for proper growth and development. DHA levels in breast milk vary worldwide. Higher levels are observed among coastal populations and are associat...

    Authors: Līva Aumeistere, Inga Ciproviča, Dace Zavadska and Viktors Volkovs
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:33
  19. Mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth brings about numerous protective effects; however, it is an intervention that is underutilized in Iraq where a globally considerable rate of maternal a...

    Authors: Kolsoom Safari, Awaz Aziz Saeed, Shukir Saleem Hasan and Lida Moghaddam-Banaem
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:32
  20. Despite the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life, the rate remains low both in developed and developing countries. In Ethiopia, findings re...

    Authors: Animut Alebel, Cheru Tesma, Belisty Temesgen, Aster Ferede and Getiye Dejenu Kibret
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:31
  21. Ghana has achieved significant progress in breastfeeding practices in the past two decades. Further progress is, however, limited by insufficient government funding and declining donor support for breastfeedin...

    Authors: Richmond Aryeetey, Amber Hromi-Fiedler, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Esi Amoaful, Gifty Ampah, Marian Gatiba, Akosua Kwakye, Gloria Otoo, Gyikua Plange-Rhule, Isabella Sagoe-Moses, Lilian Selenje and Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:30
  22. Breastmilk is the ideal nutrition for preterm infants. Yet, breastmilk feeding rates among preterm infants are substantially lower than those of full-term infants. Barriers incurred through hospital care pract...

    Authors: Meredith Brockway, Karen M. Benzies, Eloise Carr and Khalid Aziz
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:29
  23. The global breastfeeding recommendation states that all infants should be put to the breast within one hour of birth, which is defined as timely initiation or early initiation of breastfeeding. Early initiatio...

    Authors: Justin Bruno Tongun, Mohammed Boy Sebit, David Mukunya, Grace Ndeezi, Victoria Nankabirwa, Thorkild Tylleskar and James K. Tumwine
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:28
  24. The World Health Organization recommends continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among women residing on the island of Abu ...

    Authors: Mai Isam Al Ketbi, Sultan Al Noman, Abdelqadir Al Ali, Ebtihal Darwish, Maha Al Fahim and Jaishen Rajah
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:26
  25. The definition for lower limit of safe birthweight loss among exclusively breastfed neonates is arbitrary. Despite this, in cases of great in-hospital weight loss, breastfeeding adequacy is immediately questio...

    Authors: Sergio Verd, Diego de Sotto, Consuelo Fernández and Antonio Gutiérrez
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:25
  26. Exclusive breastfeeding is significantly associated with strong infant immunity and optimal development. The importance of breastfeeding is underestimated. Parental lack of knowledge and unhealthy practices re...

    Authors: Rubeena Zakar, Muhammad Zakria Zakar, Lubna Zaheer and Florian Fischer
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:24
  27. The first priority for infant feeding is to encourage the use of infant’s mother’s breast milk, but when this is not possible, donated breast milk is the second best option. In developing countries, very few s...

    Authors: Tilayie Feto Gelano, Yadeta Dessie Bacha, Nega Assefa, Aboma Motumma, Aklilu Abrham Roba, Yohanes Ayele and Fikirte Tsige
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:23
  28. Lack of breastfeeding support is often cited by mothers as one of the key reasons for premature weaning. The experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding mothers in a range of contexts and their support needs ...

    Authors: Nicole Bridges, Gwyneth Howell and Virginia Schmied
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:22
  29. Mothers rely heavily on health worker advice to make infant feeding decisions. Confusing or misleading advice can lead to suboptimal feeding practices. From 2001, HIV positive mothers in South Africa were coun...

    Authors: Sara Nieuwoudt and Lenore Manderson
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:20
  30. Timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as putting the newborn to the breast within one hour of birth. Significant benefits in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity can be attained with effective pro...

    Authors: Liyew Mekonen, Wubareg Seifu and Zemenu Shiferaw
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:17
  31. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative step number five of the “Ten steps to successful breastfeeding” states “Show mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation...

    Authors: Alison W. Talbert, Benjamin Tsofa, Edward Mumbo, James A. Berkley and Martha Mwangome
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:16
  32. Maternal country of birth has been associated with perinatal health outcomes but less is known regarding breastfeeding practices in contemporary European settings. This study investigated effect of maternal co...

    Authors: Musa Abubakar Kana, Carina Rodrigues, Maria João Fonseca, Ana Cristina Santos and Henrique Barros
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:15
  33. The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in the Northeast region of Thailand has recently significantly decreased in contrast to all other regions in Thailand. The factors that have influenced this decrease re...

    Authors: Thiwawan Thepha, Debbie Marais, Jacqueline Bell and Somjit Muangpin
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:14
  34. The authors are retracting this article [1] because there is significant overlap of both text and data with the Master’s Thesis of Hilina Ketma, “Assessment of prevalence and determinants of suboptimal breast ...

    Authors: Teklemariam Gultie and Girum Sebsibie
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:13

    The original article was published in International Breastfeeding Journal 2016 11:5

  35. Exclusive breastfeeding is important for child health and growth, but its practice is low in many developing countries. This study aimed at determining the breastfeeding practices and examining the sociodemogr...

    Authors: Bernard Yeboah-Asiamah Asare, Joyce Veronica Preko, Diana Baafi and Bismark Dwumfour-Asare
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:12
  36. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding for 2 years of age or beyond. There is paucity of information on the disparity in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practic...

    Authors: Mahat Jimale Mohamed, Sophie Ochola and Victor O. Owino
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:11
  37. In Indonesia, 96% of children (< 24mo) are breastfed. However, only 42% of children (< 6mo) are exclusively breastfed, as per World Health Organization recommendations. Breastfeeding provides protective benefi...

    Authors: Adiatma Y. M. Siregar, Pipit Pitriyan and Dylan Walters
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:10
  38. Despite consistent evidence showing the importance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months, it remains a sub-optimal practice in The Gambia. This study aimed at investigating the determinants of EBF kn...

    Authors: Thomas Senghore, Tobiloba Alex Omotosho, Omar Ceesay and Daisy Clara H. Williams
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:9
  39. Breastfeeding support from health professionals can be effective in influencing a mother’s decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. However, health professionals, including nursing students, do not alw...

    Authors: Shu-Fei Yang, Yenna Salamonson, Elaine Burns and Virginia Schmied
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:8
  40. The practice of giving prelacteal feeds deprive a newborn of valuable nutrients and expose the newborn to risks of infection. Despite its negative health outcomes, prelacteal feeding prevails in Ethiopia. Ther...

    Authors: Nana Chea and Anteneh Asefa
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:7
  41. Timely initiation of breastfeeding can decrease neonatal mortality. However, about 50% of newborns are not breastfeed within 1 h of birth in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to ident...

    Authors: Richard Mbusa Kambale, Jérémie Bisimwa Buliga, Nancy Francisca Isia, Adolphe Nyakasane Muhimuzi, Oreste Battisti and Bruno Masumbuko Mungo
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:6
  42. Ineffective breastfeeding technique is one of the factors contributing to mothers practicing non-exclusive breastfeeding. Inappropriate breastfeeding technique is the leading cause of nipple pain in Ethiopia, ...

    Authors: Getahun Tiruye, Firehiwot Mesfin, Biftu Geda and Kasiye Shiferaw
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:5
  43. Breast milk is comprised of the essential nutrients that an infant needs in the first six months of life. Timely initiation of breastfeeding guarantees that infants receive the colostrum, ‘the first breastmilk...

    Authors: Meseret Ekubay, Aster Berhe and Engida Yisma
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:4
  44. Although breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the normal method of infant feeding, there are large variations in rates of initiation and duration. Several factors are linked to the likelihood of breastfeedi...

    Authors: Luke Hounsome and Sally Dowling
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:3
  45. Breastfeeding is recognized as the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have explored perceived barriers to breastfeeding and factors associated...

    Authors: Phuong Thi Kim Nguyen, Hoang Thi Tran, Thuy Thi Thanh Thai, Kirsty Foster, Christine L. Roberts and Ben J. Marais
    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2018 13:2

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