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  1. The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting normal life globally, every area of life is touched. The pandemic demands quick action and as new information emerges, reliable synthesises and guidelines for care are urgen...

    Authors: Welma Lubbe, Elina Botha, Hannakaisa Niela-Vilen and Penny Reimers

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:82

    Content type: Review

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  2. Global guidelines recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life. South African EBF rates have steadily increased but still only average 32% for infants below 6 months of age. Malnutrit...

    Authors: Zara Trafford, Sara Jewett, Alison Swartz, Amnesty E. LeFevre, Peter J. Winch, Christopher J. Colvin, Peter Barron and Lesley Bamford

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:81

    Content type: Research

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  3. Early initiation of breastfeeding offers nutritional and immunological benefits to the newborn, which is critical for health and survival. Understanding factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeedi...

    Authors: Farida Ali, Melina Mgongo, Redempta Mamseri, Johnston M. George, Innocent B. Mboya and Sia E. Msuya

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:80

    Content type: Research

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  4. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding have been usually studied at specific times after birth. Little is known about how much time is added to breastfeeding by each associated factor.

    Authors: Carolina Lechosa-Muñiz, María Paz-Zulueta, Sonia Mateo Sota, María Sáez de Adana Herrero, Elsa Cornejo del Rio, Javier Llorca and María J. Cabero-Perez

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:79

    Content type: Research

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  5. Breastfeeding an infant exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) carries the risk of HIV acquisition whilst not breastfeeding poses a higher risk of death from malnutrition, diarrhea, and pneumonia. In Ug...

    Authors: Jackslina Gaaniri Ngbapai, Jonathan Izudi and Stephen Okoboi

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:78

    Content type: Research

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  6. We investigate whether correct infant feeding knowledge and practice differ by maternal HIV status in an era of evolving clinical guidelines in rural South Africa.

    Authors: H. Manisha Yapa, Róisín Drayne, Nigel Klein, Jan-Walter De Neve, Kathy Petoumenos, Awachana Jiamsakul, Carina Herbst, Deenan Pillay, Frank A. Post and Till Bärnighausen

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:77

    Content type: Research

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  7. Despite national efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), South Africa’s EBF rate is only 32 %. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of EBF discontinuation and the lived experiences of breast...

    Authors: Chantell Witten, Nicole Claasen, Herculina S. Kruger, Anna Coutsoudis and Herman Grobler

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:76

    Content type: Research

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  8. Best practices in breastfeeding are often not followed despite appropriate levels of knowledge and positive attitudes regarding the benefits of human milk. For many reasons, some women do not initiate breastfe...

    Authors: Wilma B. Freire, William F. Waters, Diana Román, Philippe Belmont, Emily Wilkinson-Salamea, Adrián Diaz, Ivan Palacios and Enrique Bucheli

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:75

    Content type: Research

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  9. Suboptimal breastfeeding practices are driven by multiple factors. Thus, a multi-sectoral approach is necessary to design and implement appropriate policies and programs that protect, promote, and support brea...

    Authors: Richmond Aryeetey, Kassandra Harding, Amber Hromi-Fiedler and Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:74

    Content type: Research

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  10. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has multiple benefits for both the child and the mother; however, there is little data regarding the reason why Mexican mothers with a high socio-economic level abandon EBF before...

    Authors: María Natividad Ávila-Ortiz, Ana Elisa Castro-Sánchez, Elizabeth Andrea Martínez-González, Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha and Adriana Zambrano-Moreno

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:73

    Content type: Research

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  11. Breastfeeding success has been measured based on its duration, disregarding satisfaction with the maternal experience. Studies to investigate maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding are rare, especially in Br...

    Authors: Andrea Francis Kroll de Senna, Camila Giugliani, Juliana Avilla, Agnes Meire Branco Leria Bizon, Ana Cláudia Magnus Martins and Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:72

    Content type: Research

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  12. The health and developmental advantages of human milk and breastfeeding are particularly important for infants with Down syndrome. However, they typically have shorter breastfeeding duration due to sucking iss...

    Authors: Viviane Silva Coentro, Donna T. Geddes and Sharon L. Perrella

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:71

    Content type: Case Report

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  13. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for the first six months of age by the World Health Organization. Mothers’ good knowledge and positive attitude play key roles in the process of exclusive breastfee...

    Authors: Jean Prince Claude Dukuzumuremyi, Kwabena Acheampong, Julius Abesig and Jiayou Luo

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:70

    Content type: Review

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  14. The first reports of the Chinese experience in the management of newborns of mothers with SARS-CoV 2 infection did not recommend mother-baby contact or breastfeeding. At present, the most important Internation...

    Authors: Augusto Pereira, Sara Cruz-Melguizo, Maria Adrien, Lucia Fuentes, Eugenia Marin, Azul Forti and Tirso Perez-Medina

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:69

    Content type: Research

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  15. In an effort to prevent infants being infected with SARS-CoV-2, some governments, professional organisations, and health facilities are instituting policies that isolate newborns from their mothers and otherwi...

    Authors: Karleen Gribble, Roger Mathisen, Mija-tesse Ververs and Anna Coutsoudis

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:67

    Content type: Commentary

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  16. Human breast milk is one of the key early postnatal biological exposures for the developing child. It includes bioactive compounds, such as cortisol and fatty acids, which may be linked via the mother’s lipid ...

    Authors: Kaisa M. Linderborg, Maaria Kortesniemi, Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson, Baoru Yang and Henna-Maria Uusitupa

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:66

    Content type: Research

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  17. Perceived milk supply is an important modifiable factor for optimal breastfeeding. However, little is known about maternal perception of milk supply or how it impacts breastfeeding practices. The aim of this s...

    Authors: Ayyu Sandhi, Gabrielle T. Lee, Roselyn Chipojola, Mega Hasanul Huda and Shu-Yu Kuo

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:65

    Content type: Research

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  18. China has an extremely low exclusive breastfeeding rate. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate among infants born extremely or very preterm. However, there is l...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Zhiying Duan, Yingxi Zhao, Sarah Williams, Stephen Wall, Limin Huang, Xiaoqin Zhang, Wenli Wu, Jieya Yue, Lin Zhang, Jun Liu and Gengli Zhao

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:64

    Content type: Research

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  19. Breastfeeding is emerging as an important reproductive rights issue in the care of trans and gender nonconforming people. This study sought to understand the tools available to professionals working in the fie...

    Authors: Emily Trautner, Megan McCool-Myers and Andrea Braden Joyner

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:63

    Content type: Research

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  20. Although the baby-friendly community initiative (BFCI) has been proposed as a community-level approach to improve infant feeding practices, there is little data on its variation in effectiveness by HIV status....

    Authors: Betty Mogesi Samburu, Sera Lewise Young, Frederick Murunga Wekesah, Milkah Njeri Wanjohi, Judith Kimiywe, Peter Muriuki, Paula L. Griffiths, Stephen T. McGarvey, Nyovani Janet Madise and Elizabeth W. Kimani-Murage

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:62

    Content type: Research

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  21. While exclusive breastfeeding is recommended to 6 months of age, just 15% of mothers in Australia achieve this. The rate appears to be even lower among mothers born in China, where 90% have introduced infant f...

    Authors: Konsita Kuswara, Karen J. Campbell, Kylie D. Hesketh, Miaobing Zheng and Rachel Laws

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:61

    Content type: Research

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  22. In Jordan, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding is declining. The trend variation in breastfeeding practice is determined by different factors including antenatal women’s attitude and planning which are affecte...

    Authors: Wasim Khasawneh, Khalid Kheirallah, Mai Mazin and Sanaa Abdulnabi

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:60

    Content type: Research

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  23. Mexico has shown a worrisome decrease in breastfeeding indicators, especially in the lowest socioeconomic level. Improving breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support services through workforce developmen...

    Authors: Mireya Vilar-Compte, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Meztli Moncada and Diana Flores

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:59

    Content type: Research

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  24. Evidence of interventions that are effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices is needed to help countries revise their strategies. To assess whether mothers who had participated in the Nutr...

    Authors: Jaures H. F. Lokonon, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin and Nicole Idohou-Dossou

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:58

    Content type: Research

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  25. The profile of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HT) in cord blood and in early breast milk was studied and it was related to pe...

    Authors: Kata Nyárády, Réka Turai, Simone Funke, Erzsébet Györgyi, Alexandra Makai, Viktória Prémusz, József Bódis and Endre Sulyok

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:57

    Content type: Research

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  26. Although substantial evidence exists on factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding, there is a general lack of qualitative studies that examine how specific workplace factors constrain or promote exclusive...

    Authors: Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah, Maame Yaa Antwi, Jacqueline Nkrumah and Fred Yao Gbagbo

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:56

    Content type: Research

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  27. Obesity is a worldwide public health problem that demands significant attention. Several studies have found that maternal obesity has a negative effect on the duration of breastfeeding and delayed lactogenesis...

    Authors: Ana Ballesta-Castillejos, Juan Gomez-Salgado, Julian Rodriguez-Almagro, Inmaculada Ortiz-Esquinas and Antonio Hernandez-Martinez

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:55

    Content type: Research

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  28. The Breastfeeding Behavior Questionnaire (BBQ) assesses women’s perceptions of their breastfeeding behavior. It was adapted to several languages and used in different settings, but has not been validated in Ar...

    Authors: Lama Charafeddine, Saadieh Masri, Lama Shamsedine, Lilian Ghandour, Hani Tamim, Nathalie El Khoury, Zahraa Hachem and Mona Nabulsi

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:54

    Content type: Research

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  29. Prelacteal feeding, the feeding a newborn substances or liquids before breastfeeding, is a common cultural practice in Pakistan, but is associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality because it delays early ...

    Authors: Muhammad Asim, Zarak Husain Ahmed, Mark D. Hayward and Elizabeth M. Widen

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:53

    Content type: Research

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  30. To protect children’s right to optimal nutrition, WHO/UNICEF developed a Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, endorsed by all 53 WHO/EURO Member States. The World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative...

    Authors: Irena Zakarija-Grković, Adriano Cattaneo, Maria Enrica Bettinelli, Claudia Pilato, Charlene Vassallo, Mariella Borg Buontempo, Helen Gray, Clare Meynell, Patricia Wise, Susanna Harutyunyan, Stefanie Rosin, Andrea Hemmelmayr, Daiva Šniukaitė-Adner, Maryse Arendt and Arun Gupta

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:51

    Content type: Research

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  31. In West Bengal, according to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16, undernutrition and anemia are particularly common among scheduled tribe women and children. The purpose of this research is to a...

    Authors: Caroline Katharina Stiller, Silvia Konstanze Ellen Golembiewski, Monika Golembiewski, Srikanta Mondal, Hans Konrad Biesalski and Veronika Scherbaum

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:50

    Content type: Research

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  32. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circadian variation of human milk macronutrients and energy content depending upon pregnancy duration.

    Authors: Ieva Jura Paulaviciene, Arunas Liubsys, Alma Molyte, Audrone Eidukaite and Vytautas Usonis

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:49

    Content type: Research

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  33. Differences in physiotherapy intervention practices for mastitis have been shown across Australian regions and facilities and it is unknown if this is associated with physiotherapists’ definition and diagnosis...

    Authors: Emma Heron, Tanya Maselli, Adelle McArdle, Beatriz I. R. de Oliveira and Leanda McKenna

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:48

    Content type: Research

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  34. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months was previously found to be very low among Chinese immigrants in Ireland, at 5.8% (Zhou et al., Front Public Health 6:351, 2018). This study inves...

    Authors: Qianling Zhou, Haoyue Chen, Katherine M. Younger, Tanya M. Cassidy and John M. Kearney

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:47

    Content type: Research

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  35. Currently there is no published data on the inclusion of breastfeeding education within the UK medical school curriculum. This study aims to address this knowledge gap and explore students’ perceptions of thei...

    Authors: Kirsty V. Biggs, Katy J. Fidler, Natalie S. Shenker and Heather Brown

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life with well-established benefits to the mother and child. The traditional practice of the 40-day rest period helps establish and maintain exc...

    Authors: Rana F. Chehab, Lara Nasreddine, Racha Zgheib and Michele R. Forman

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:45

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life. A qualitative study was conducted to assess the factors that influence the practice of exclusive breastfeeding...

    Authors: Mahat Jimale Mohamed, Sophie Ochola and Victor O. Owino

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended ...

    Authors: Joseph Rujumba, Grace Ndeezi, Victoria Nankabirwa, Mary Kwagala, Michelle Mukochi, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Nicolas Meda, Ingunn M. S. Engebretsen, Thorkild Tylleskär and James Tumwine

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:43

    Content type: Research

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  39. Breastfeeding contributes to gastrointestinal microbiota colonization in early life, but its long-term impact is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether the type of feeding during the first six months of li...

    Authors: Ilana Eshriqui, Heli T. Viljakainen, Sandra R. G. Ferreira, Sajan C. Raju, Elisabete Weiderpass and Rejane A. O. Figueiredo

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:42

    Content type: Research

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  40. In efforts to reduce neonatal mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) has included breastfeeding among its recommended packages of interventions. Early initiation of breastfeeding and avoidance of prela...

    Authors: Manar E. Abdel-Rahman, Asmaa El-Heneidy, Lenka Benova and Laura Oakley

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:41

    Content type: Research

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  41. The 2013 WHO guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation of hospitalized and non-hospitalized malnourished infants under six months (u6m) recommend the re-establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. However, in mo...

    Authors: Jane Kahindi, Caroline Jones, James A. Berkley and Martha Mwangome

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:40

    Content type: Research

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  42. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, defined as no other solids or liquids besides breast milk and essential vitamins or medicines. Data about exclusive breastfeedin...

    Authors: Marie Sigstad Lande, Ingvild Hersoug Nedberg and Erik Eik Anda

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:39

    Content type: Research

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  43. Breastfeeding in public continues to be contentious with qualitative evidence confirming that women face many challenges. It is therefore important to gain understanding of not only the challenges but also wha...

    Authors: Yvonne L. Hauck, Lesley Kuliukas, Louise Gallagher, Vivienne Brady, Charlotta Dykes and Christine Rubertsson

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:38

    Content type: Research

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  44. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that donor human milk is superior to artificial infant formula in situations where the baby cannot feed on the mother’s breastmilk. The purpose of this study was to ...

    Authors: Dexter T. Chagwena, Felistas Mugariri, Bhekimpilo Sithole, Steady Faith Mataga, Ruvimbo Danda, Tonderayi M. Matsungo and Charles C. Maponga

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. The total neonatal mortality in Tanzania remains high reaching as much as 44,900 deaths per year, particularly among low birthweight (LBW) babies. This makes Tanzania the fourth African country with the highes...

    Authors: Kyoko Tada, Yoko Shimpuku, Bruno Sunguya and Shigeko Horiuchi

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors have flagged that the article contains the following errors:

    Authors: Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Gebretsadik Shibre and Amos Buh

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:35

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:10

  47. Interventions aimed at promoting breastfeeding rates are among the most effective possible health policies available, with an estimated return of US$35 per dollar invested. Indeed, some authors found that a 10...

    Authors: Juan Antonio Quesada, Ildefonso Méndez and Rocío Martín-Gil

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Many of aspects of our lives became increasingly commercialised in post-modern society. Although breastfeeding is perhaps a late comer to this process in recent years, it too has seen significant commercialisa...

    Authors: Alison M. Taylor, Jo Alexander, Edwin van Teijlingen and Kath M. Ryan

    Citation: International Breastfeeding Journal 2020 15:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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