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Table 6 The characteristics of relevant literatures focusing on the association between CD and ASD

From: Impact of caesarean delivery on children’s autism-like behaviours: the mediation of exclusive breastfeeding

Authors Publication year Research area Sample size Offspring’s age Instrument for ASD assessment Association Main findings
Andoy Galvan JA et al. [48] 2020 Malaysia 929 9y DSM or ICD10 Positive The odds of autism were higher among those born via CD compared to those born via normal deliveries.
Yip et al. [29] 2017 Western Australia 345,181 5-25y ICD-8, ICD-9, ICD-10, and DSM-IV Positive CD was consistently associated with a modest increased risk of ASD.
Burstyn et al. [13] 2010 Canada 220,028 4-10y ICD-9 codes 299.0 and 299.8 Negative There was no association between mode of delivery and ASD.
Curran et al. [46] 2016 Britain 13,141 7y Parent report Negative No association between mode of delivery and ASD was observed.
Curran et al. [47] 2015 Sweden 26,822 7-15y ICD-9 code 299 and ICD-10 code F84 Negative Children born by CS were found to be approximately 20% more likely diagnosed as having ASD. However, the association did not persist when using sibling controls, implying that this association is due to familial confounding by genetic and/or environmental factors.
  1. CD: Caesarean delivery
  2. ICD: International Classification of Diseases
  3. DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders