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Table 5 Estimations of structural equation model on mediation effect of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months between CD and children’s autism-like behaviours at 3 and 5 years

From: Impact of caesarean delivery on children’s autism-like behaviours: the mediation of exclusive breastfeeding

Variables 3-year-old children (n = 2939) 5-year-old children (n = 1766)
Unstandardized estimations Standardized estimations p values Unstandardized estimations Standardized estimations p values
maternal age -- parity 0.03 0.39 < 0.01 0.03 0.38 < 0.01
parity-- previous adverse pregnancy outcome 0.17 0.10 < 0.01 0.14 0.08 < 0.01
maternal age -- previous adverse pregnancy outcome 0.02 0.12 < 0.01 0.02 0.16 < 0.01
maternal age -- pre-pregnancy BMI 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.15 < 0.01
maternal age -- pregnant complications 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.07 < 0.01
pre-pregnancy BMI-- pregnant complications −0.01 −0.02 0.43 0.01 0.02 0.52
previous adverse pregnancy outcome -- pregnant complications 0.03 0.05 < 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.10
maternal age --complications during childbirth 0.00 0.02 0.39 0.00 0.03 0.20
pregnant complications -- caesarean delivery 0.13 0.06 < 0.01 0.14 0.07 < 0.01
parity--caesarean delivery 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.64
pre-pregnancy BMI -- caesarean delivery 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.11 0.13 < 0.01
complications during childbirth-- caesarean delivery 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.00
previous adverse pregnancy outcome --caesarean delivery 0.07 0.07 < 0.01 0.08 0.08 < 0.01
caesarean delivery -- exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months −0.04 −0.04 0.04 −0.03 −0.03 0.29
caesarean delivery -- children’s autism-like behaviours 0.00 0.01 0.79 0.00 0.01 0.72
exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months -- children’s autism-like behaviours −0.04 − 0.06 < 0.01 0.00 − 0.01 0.72
pre-pregnancy BMI -- children’s autism-like behaviours 0.01 0.01 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.94
complications during childbirth -- children’s autism-like behaviours −0.02 −0.03 0.19 0.02 0.04 0.12
pregnant complications -- children’s autism-like behaviours −0.01 −0.01 0.80 −0.04 − 0.04 0.10