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Table 1 Maternal and children’s characteristics between different delivery modes (n = 3109)

From: Impact of caesarean delivery on children’s autism-like behaviours: the mediation of exclusive breastfeeding

Maternal and children’s characteristics Total populations Delivery modes Missing (n/%) df t/χ2 values p values
Vaginal delivery Caesarean delivery
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years) (Mean ± SD) 26.61 ± 3.66 26.17 ± 3.26 27.09 ± 3.94 0/0.0 2950 −7.11 < 0.01
 Maternal education level (years) (Mean ± SD) 13.37 ± 3.16 13.44 ± 3.18 13.3 ± 3.14 20/0.6 3087 1.40 0.16
 Monthly income per capita (Yuan) (n/%)     0/0.0 2 2.61 0.27
  ≤ 2499 829/26.66 439/27.62 390/25.66     
  2500 ~ 3999 1326/42.65 681/42.86 645/42.43     
  ≥ 4000 954/30.69 469/29.52 485/31.91     
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) (n/%)     47/1.51 3 60.52 < 0.01
  Underweight 702/22.58 420/26.77 282/18.89     
  Normal 2028/65.23 1033/65.84 995/66.64     
  Overweight 274/8.81 103/6.56 171/11.45     
  Obesity 58/1.87 13/0.83 45/3.01     
 Parity (n/%)     0/0.0 1 8.63 < 0.01
  Primiparous 2803/90.16 1457/91.69 1346/88.55     
  Multiparous 306/9.84 132/8.31 174/11.45     
 Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes (n/%) 0/0.0 1 19.94 < 0.01
  Had 1292/41.56 599/37.70 693/45.59     
  Did not have 1817/58.44 990/62.30 827/54.41     
 Pregnancy complications (n/%)     0/0.0 1 13.71 < 0.01
  Had 198/6.37 76/4.78 122/8.03     
  Did not have 2911/93.63 1513/95.22 1398/91.97     
 Complications during childbirth (n/%)     13/0.42 1 3.07 0.08
  Had 826/26.67 400/25.3 426/28.1     
  Did not have 2270/73.01 1180/74.7 1090/71.9     
Children’s characteristics
 Gender     0/0.00 1 2.23 0.14
  Boys 1593/51.24 835/52.55 758/49.87     
  Girls 1516/48.76 754/47.45 762/50.13     
 Birth weight (g) (n/%)     0/0.00 2 44.66 < 0.01
  < 2500 75/2.41 39/2.45 36/2.37     
  2500 ~ 3999 2823/90.80 1489/93.71 1334/87.76     
  ≥ 4000 211/6.79 61/3.84 150/9.87     
 Gestational weeks (n/%)     0/0.0 1 3.72 0.05
  < 37 126/4.05 75/4.72 51/3.36     
  ≥ 37 2983/95.95 1514/95.28 1469/96.64     
1-minute Apgar scores (Mean ± SD) 9.94 ± 0.52 9.94 ± 0.45 9.93 ± 0.59 42/1.35 3065 0.94 0.35
5-minute Apgar scores (Mean ± SD) 9.98 ± 0.20 9.98 ± 0.23 9.99 ± 0.18 43/1.38 2950 −1.39 0.17