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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers participating in WIC in seven program locations (n = 1161)

From: The role of state breastfeeding laws and programs on exclusive breastfeeding practice among mothers in the special supplemental nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Characteristics CN* GA* MA* NV* PA* WI* WY*
Total sampled 103 88 89 524 256 12 89
Socio-demographic factors
 Mother's age (years), mean (*SD) 25 (5) 26 (25) 23 (28) 27 (14) 27 (10) 19 (37) 27 (5)
 Infant’s age (weeks), mean (SD) 13 (8) 12 (9) 3 (2) 11 (8) 7 (4) 8 (11) 11 (8)
 Infant’s age (%)
   < 8 weeks 34 (33) 33 (37) 85 (96) 216 (41) 130 (51) 8 (67) 38 (43)
  8–16 weeks 26 (25) 19 (22) 4 (4) 133 (25) 123 (48) 1 (8) 23 (26)
   > 16 weeks 43 (42) 36 (41) 0 175 (33) 3 (1) 3 (25) 28 (32)
 Education (%)
   < High school graduate 16 (16) 7 (8) 21 (26) 99 (20) 49 (20) 2 (17) 15 (17)
   ≥ High school graduate 83 (84) 78 (92) 59 (74) 409 (80) 196 (80) 10 (83) 74 (83)
  missing 4 3 9 16 11   
 Marital status (%)
  Married/living with partner 67 (68) 42 (49) 43 (54) 317 (62) 128 (53) 9 (75) 63 (71)
  Single 32 (32) 43 (51) 37 (46) 191 (38) 115 (47) 3 (25) 26 (29)
  missing 4 3 9 16 13   
 Employment status (%)
  Unemployed 62 (63) 54 (64) 57 (71) 380 (75) 154 (63) 6 (50) 60 (67)
  Employed 37 (37) 30 (36) 23 (29) 128 (25) 89 (37) 6 (50) 29 (33)
  missing 4 4 9 16 13   
 Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Caucasian/White 36 (36) 3 (4) 21 (27) 102 (21) 198 (86) 2 (18) 66 (76)
  Asian/Pacific Islander 0 6 (8) 2 (3) 35 (7) 1 (0) 2 (18) 0
  Black/African American 2 (2) 54 (69) 7 (9) 50 (10) 15 (7) 4 (36) 0
  American Indian/Alaska Native 28 (28) 0 0 6 (1) 0 0 2 (2)
  Hispanic/Latina 6 (6) 11 (14) 39 (49) 249 (51) 4 (2) 2 (18) 14 (16)
  Multiracial 27 (27) 4 (5) 5 (6) 46 (9) 11 (5) 1 (9) 4 (5)
  Other 0 0 5 (6) 2 (1) 2 (1) 0 1 (1)
  missing 4 10 10 34 25 1 2
 Has an adult support for baby (%) 80 (81) 54 (64) 52 (64) 357 (70) 168 (69) 9 (75) 67 (75)
  missing 4 3 8 16 13   
 Current smoker (%) 11 (11) 5 (6) 7 (7) 14 (3) 44 (18) 1 (8) 4 (5)
  missing 4 3 8 16 11   
Obstetric factors
 Parity (%)
  multiparity 57 (55) 57 (65) 57 (64) 353 (67) 165 (64) 12 (100) 56 (63)
  primiparity 46 (45) 31 (35) 32 (36) 171 (33) 91 (36) 0 33 (37)
 Cesarean section (%) 34 (33) 32 (36) 29 (35) 145 (28) 82 (32) 6 (50) 21 (24)
  missing    5 3    
 Prematurity (%) 12 (12) 15 (17) 18 (21) 43 (8) 28 (11) 3 (25) 8 (9)
  missing    5 3    
Breastfeeding-related factors
 Exclusive breastfeeding (%) 32 (31) 27 (31) 17 (20) 202 (39) 57 (22) 5 (42) 61 (69)
  missing    2 3    
 Currently breastfeeding (%) 51 (50) 73 (83) 56 (63) 429 (82) 95 (37) 8 (67) 78 (88)
 Ever breastfeed (%) 88 (85) 86 (98) 71 (80) 510 (98) 173 (68) 9 (75) 87 (98)
  missing     1    
 Received breastfeeding promotion (%) 91 (88) 71 (81) 62 (70) 418 (80) 202 (79) 9 (75) 68 (76)
 History of breastfeeding (%) 44 (43) 46 (52) 40 (46) 304 (58) 106 (41) 10 (83) 51 (57)
  missing    1     
 Received information from any breastfeeding support group (%) 23 (23) 29 (33) 12 (14) 102 (20) 42 (17) 4 (33) 17 (19)
  missing    4 3 4   1
 WIC breastfeeding consultation (%) 97 (95) 66 (75) 68 (80) 469 (90) 208 (83) 10 (83) 76 (86)
  missing 1   4 3 4   1
  1. *CN Chickasaw Nation, *GA Georgia, *MA Massachusetts, *NV Nevada, *PA Pennsylvania, *WI Wisconsin, *WY Wyoming, *SD Standard deviation