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Table 4 Comparison of SIgA concentrations and lysozyme activities between fresh and frozen human milk samples

From: Effects of the thawing rate and heating temperature on immunoglobulin A and lysozyme activity in human milk

Compared thawing methods SIgA concentration (mg / dL) a Lysozyme activity (nmol / mg protein) b
Mean differences (SD) HSD-test P value W P value
Fresh and rapid thawing at 25 °C 14.24 (7.97) 12.113  < 0.001** -7.69  < 0.001**
Fresh and rapid thawing at 37 °C 8.61 (6.94) 7.325  < 0.001** -9.05  < 0.001**
Fresh and slow thawing at 25 °C 7.36 (6.01) 6.775  < 0.001** -4.76 0.007*
Fresh and slow thawing at 37 °C 4.50 (6.07) 3.832 0.072 -4.98 0.004*
Rapid thawing at 25 °C and 37 °C -5.63 (4.33) 4.787 0.008* 2.14 0.554
Slow thawing at 25 °C and 37 °C -2.95 (3.47) 2.943 0.395 -2.00 0.619
Rapid thawing at 25 °C and slow thawing at 25 °C -6.51 (4.94) 5.338 0.002* 5.57  < 0.001**
Rapid thawing at 37 °C and slow thawing at 37° -4.11 (4.60) 3.493 0.141 0.67 0.990
  Between groups: SS = 4443.320, df = 4, MS = 1110.830; Within groups: SS = 10,665.779, df = 194, MS = 54.978; F = 20.20, p < 0.001** Chi-square = 51.93, df = 4, p < 0.001
  1. a The SIgA concentration data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s HSD pairwise comparisons
  2. b The lysozyme activity data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test with Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner pairwise comparisons. Significant differences between fresh milk and frozen HM samples obtained using different thawing methods and warming temperature were identified by * p < 0.05 and ** p < 0.001
  3. F F ratio??? Or is it factor? df degrees of freedom, HSD (Tukey’s) honest significance test, HM human milk, MS mean square, SIgA secretory immunoglobulin A, SS sum of squares, W Wilcoxon Z value