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Table 1 Summary of the previous studies examining the effects of heating on the SIgA concentrations and lysozyme activity

From: Effects of the thawing rate and heating temperature on immunoglobulin A and lysozyme activity in human milk

Ref Year Sample (n) Current LabCorp Method Intervention Effects
SIgA Lysozyme IgA Lysozyme
Paulaviciene et al. [23] 2020 42 NS ELISA using the commercial CircuLex Human Lysozyme ELISA Kit (MBL, Japan) Comparison of the effects of HoP (62.5 °C for 30 min) with fresh HM NS Reduced (p = 0.007)
Vieco et al. [22] 2018 Multiple donors from a human milk bank Duplicate results obtained using a Bio-Plex 200 system instrument (Bio–Rad Hercules, CA, USA) and determined with the Bio-Plex Pro Human Isotyping Assay (Bio–Rad Hercules, CA, USA) NS Comparison of the effects of HTST treatments at different temperatures (70, 72, or 75 °C) for different times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 s) with HoP, (62.5 °C for 30 min) Greater IgA retention was observed after any of the HTST treatments than after HoP (p < 0.001) NS
Chang et al. [21] 2013 16 SIgA ELISA kit (K8870; Immundiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany) Lysozyme enzyme immunoassay kit (Biomedical Technologies Inc., Stoughton, MA, USA) Comparison of the effects of warming at 40 °C with warming at 60 °C Stable Stable
Handa et al. [24] 2014 40 SIgA ELISA kit (ALPCO Diagnostics, Salem, NH, USA) NS Comparison of the effects of heating between samples thawed at 4 °C for 24 h prior to warming and those immediately thawed and warmed at 37 °C after being removed from the freezer (-20 °C) Stable NS
Akinbi et al. [20] 2010 18
(fresh)
15
(pooled specimens of pasteurized milk)
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ALPACO Diagnostics, Salem, NH) Anti-human lysozyme (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corp, New York, NY, USA) Comparison of the effects of pasteurization (pulse heating at 62.5 °C for 30 min) with fresh HM Reduced (p < 0.0001) Reduced (p < 0.001)
Evans et al. [13] 1978 6 (IgA samples)
9
(Lysozyme samples)
Electroimmunoassay Electroimmunoassay Assessment of the effects of pasteurization for 30 min at 60, 62.5, 65, 67.5, and 70 °C Progressive loss of SIgA with increases in the heating temperature Progressive loss of lysozyme activity with increases in the heating temperature
  1. HM human milk, HoP Holder pasteurization, HTST high temperature for a short time, IgA immunoglobulin A, NS not studied, SIgA secretory immunoglobulin A