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Table 6 Previous study findings on prelacteal-feeding practice

From: Prelacteal feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers having children less than 2 years of age in East Africa: a multilevel analysis of the recent demographic and health surveys

Authors Title of the article Findings
Prevalence Factors associated with prelacteal feeding
Nguyen, 2013 [7] Prelacteal feeding practices in Vietnam: challenges and associated factors 73.5% Cesarean section (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI: 2.39, 3.61)
Berde, 2013 [8] Determinants of prelacteal feeding practices in urban and rural Nigeria Urban Nigeria (49.8%) &
Rural Nigeria (66.4%)
No education and primary educational status ((AOR: 1.48; 95% CI:1.07, 2.04 and AOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69, respectively)
Home delivery (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI:1.24, 1.89)
Cesarean Delivery (AOR: 1.87; 95% CI:1.25, 2.80)
Multiple birth (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI:1.14, 4.95)
El-Gilany, 2014 [10] Newborn first Feed and prelacteal feeds in Mansoura, Egypt 58% Urban residence (AOR: 3.8; 95%CI: 2.4, 6.0), Maternal education (AOR: 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.3), Father’s education secondary (AOR: 3.0; 95%CI: 1.7, 5.3); receiving ANC visits at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section (AOR: 2.1; 95%CI: 1.2, 3.2); female babies (AOR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 3.2), and low birth weight (AOR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.6, 11.2)
Khanal, 2016 [12] Prevalence and factors associated with prelacteal feeding
in Western Nepal
(30.6%) Higher parity (AOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.54), low birth weight (AOR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.16), a cesarean delivery (AOR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.37, 5.80), and wealthy status (AOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52, 4.06)
Berde, 2017 [15] Risk factors for prelacteal feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of population data from twenty-two countries 32·2% Cesarean section (AOR: 2·25; 95% CI: 2·06, 2·46). Other factors are also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of prelacteal feeding such as the mother’s lower educational status, lower number of ANC visits, home delivery, multiple birth, male infant, and having a small-sized baby at birth. Besides, belonging to lower quintiles decrease the odds of prelacteal feeding.
Ogah, 2012 [20] A cross-sectional study of prelacteal feeding practice among women attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital Maternal And Child Health Clinic, Bushenyi, Western Uganda. 31.3% Delay in initiating breastfeeding increases the prelacteal feeding practice
Agho, 2016 [26] Trends and predictors of prelacteal feeding practices in Nigeria (2003–2013) 59.0% Mothers with no schooling (AOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.03),
Younger mothers (aged 15–24 years),
Mothers who delivered at home (AOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.71), and
Delivered by caesarean section (AOR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.13)
Belachew, 2016 [27] Individual and community-level factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia 28.92% Caesarean delivery (AOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.73), and late initiation of breastfeeding (AOR: 5.32; 95% CI: 4.65, 6.09). Higher economic status (AOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.98), large birth size of child (AOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.95), and high community ANC use (AOR: 58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87).
Gualu, 2016 [28] Determinants of prelacteal feeding practice
among postpartum mothers in Debre Markos
town, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2016
19.1% Inability to read and write (AOR: 3.5; 95%CI: 1.14, 10.75), giving birth to a male (AOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.23, 6.37), home delivery (AOR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.78, 10.85)
Tekaly, 2017 [36] Prelacteal feeding practice and associated factors among mothers having children less than 2 years of age in Aksum town, central Tigray, Ethiopia 10.1% (95% CI: 7.3, 13%). < 4 ANC visit (AOR: 10.55; 95% CI: 4.78, 23.40),
Cesarean section (AOR: 4.38; 95% CI:1.72, 11.12)
Temesgen, 2018 [37] Prelacteal feeding and associated factors in Ethiopia: systematic review and meta-analysis 25.29% (95% CI: 17.43, 33.15) ANC visit (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.69),
Timely initiation of breastfeeding (AOR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.38)
Urban residence (AOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.86) Home birth (AOR: 3.93; 95% CI: 2.17, 7.10)
Amele, 2019 [38] Prelacteal feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers of children age less than 24 months old in Southern Ethiopia (20.6%) (95% CI: 17.5, 24.4) Extended family type (AOR: 10.64; 95% CI: 1.05, 10.71)
Lack of breastfeeding counseling (AOR: 5.16; 95% CI: 1.76, 15.13) and
Mothers who avoid colostrum (AOR: 9.72; 95% CI: 3.46, 27.30)
Patel, 2013 [39] Factors associated with
prelacteal feeding and timely
initiation of breastfeeding in
hospital-delivered infants in India
16.9% Lower maternal education (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI 1.06, 4.35),
Muslim religion (AOR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.36), and
Delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.19)
Wolde, 2019 [40] Prelacteal feeding and associated factors among mothers having children less than 24 months of age, in Mettu district, Southwest Ethiopia 14.2% [95% CI: 12.0, 17.0] No maternal education (AOR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.7, 6.98),
Single ANC visits (AOR: 6.87; 95% CI: 3.21, 14.73),
Home delivery (AOR: 3.04; 95% Cl: 1.60, 5.75) and
Cesarean delivery (AOR: 4.27; 95% CI: 2.28, 7.99)
Argaw, 2019 [41] Factors associated with prelacteal feeding practices in Debre Berhan district, North Shoa, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional, community-based study 14.2% (95% CI: 11.00–17.00%) Home delivery (AOR: 4.70; 95% CI: 2.56, 8.60)
Delayed initiation of breastfeeding (AOR: 5.58; 95% CI: 3.21, 9.46).
Mothers who can read and write (AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.98).
Asim, 2020 [42] Prelacteal feeding practices in Pakistan: a mixed-methods study 64.7% Birth at public health facilities (AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.95)
Maternal primary education (AOR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.35, 3.85), and
Delayed breastfeeding initiation (AOR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.61).
Gebremeskel, 2020 [43] Magnitude of prelacteal feeding and its associated factors among mothers having children less than one year of age: a community-based cross-sectional study in rural Eastern Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia 24.7% Parity (AOR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04–2.23), late initiation of breastfeeding (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.30–2.59), and colostrum discard (AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.06–2.33).
Gao, 2020 [44] Trends in prelacteal feeding practices in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2019 88.0% Being having maternal education, improvements in socioeconomic status, and exposure to media decreases the odds of prelacteal feeding.
  1. Note: ANC Antenatal Care, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval