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Table 4 Factors associated with prelacteal feeding practice in East Africa

From: Prelacteal feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers having children less than 2 years of age in East Africa: a multilevel analysis of the recent demographic and health surveys

Variables Multilevel Logistic regression
Based on unweighted data Based on weighted data
COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–24 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 0.87 (0.75, 1.01) 0.90 (0.76, 1.06)
 25–29 0.85 (0.76, 0.95) 0.85 (0.74, 0.97) * 0.82 (0.70, 0.95) 0.85 (0.71, 1.02)
 30–34 0.93 (0.82, 1.05) 0.92 (0.79, 1.08) 0.84 (0.73, 0.98) 0.87 (0.72, 1.05)
 35–39 0.93 (0.82, 1.07) 0.90 (0.76, 1.07) 0.90 (0.75, 1.08) 0.92 (0.73, 1.16)
 40–44 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 0.90 (0.73, 1.12) 0.97 (0.78, 1.21) 0.99 (0.76, 1.29)
 45–49 0.98 (0.70, 1.38) 0.92 (0.64, 1.34) 0.94 (0.61, 1.47) 0.93 (0.59, 1.48)
Educational level
 No education 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 0.66 (0.51, 0.72) 0.76 (0.70, 0.83) *** 0.85 (0.76, 0.95) 0.89 (0.78, 1.01)
 Sec & above 0.76 (0.69, 0.83) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99)* 0.99 (0.86, 1.13) 1.03 (0.88, 1.20)
Wealth index
 Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Middle 0.80 (0.73, 0.88) 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) 0.97 (0.86, 1.60)
 Rich 0.85 (0.79, 0.92) 0.91 (0.82, 1.01) 0.93 (0.84, 1.04) 0.87 (0.76, 1.01)
Sex of child
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.96 (0.89, 1.03) 0.94 (0.87, 1.03) 0.95 (0.87, 1.05)
Multiple birth
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.77 (1.41, 2.23) 1.58 (1.24, 2.03)*** 1.98 (1.47, 2.66) 1.69 (1.22, 1.34) **
Breastfeeding initiation
 Within 1 h 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 After 1 h 4.57 (4.26, 4.90) 3.89 (3.61, 4.18) 4.58 (4.16, 5.03) 3.83 (3.48, 4.23) ***
Media exposure
 No 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 1.15 (1.06, 2.24)** 1.18 (1.06, 1.30) 1.21 (1.07, 1.35) **
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Parity
 Primiparous 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Multiparous 0.80 (0.73, 0.87) 0.88 (0.80, 0.98)* 0.78 (0.70, 0.86) 0.89 (0.78, 1.01)
 Grand multiparous 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.90 (0.79, 1.03) 0.89 (0.80, 1.01) 0.91 (0.77, 1.08)
ANC visits
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 One & two 0.60 (0.53, 0.69) 0.77 (0.67, 0.88)*** 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.89 (0.72, 1.11)
 Three 0.43 (0.39, 0.49) 0.65 (0.56, 0.74)*** 0.60 (0.49, 0.74) 0.81 (0.65, 1.01)
 Four & above 0.44 (0.40, 0.49) 0.68 (0.60, 0.77)*** 0.63 (0.52, 0.76) 0.85 (0.70, 1.41)
Place of delivery
 Home 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Health facility 0.41 (0.38, 0.44) 0.43 (0.40, 0.47)*** 0.46 (0.41, 0.51) 0.44 (0.39, 0.49) ***
Cesarean delivery
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.09 (1.86, 2.33) 1.65 (1.45, 1.88)*** 2.28 (1.96, 2.65) 1.63 (1.38, 1.93) ***
Size of the child at birth
 Small 1.40 (1.28, 1.54) 1.14 (1.03, 1.26)* 1.31 (1.15, 1.48) 1.15 (1.01, 1.32) *
 Large 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Average 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) 0.92 (0.83, 1.01)* 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 0.95 (0.86, 1.06)
Distance from the health facility
 Big problem 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Not a big problem 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 1.02 (0.94, 1.09) 0.97 (0.88, 1.06) 0.98 (0.90, 1.08)
Residence
 Urban 1.00 1.00 0.84 (0.74, 0.95) 1.00
 Rural 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) 0.84 (0.74, 0.90)*** 0.78 (0.67, 0.91) **
Community-level women education
 Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 High 1.10 (1.01, 1.18) 1.10 (1.01, 1.21) 1.14 (1.02, 1.27) 1.10 (0.98, 1.24)
Community poverty level
 Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 High 0.89 (0.82, 0.97) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99)* 0.90 (0.81, 1.01) 0.95 (0.84, 1.06)
Community-level of ANC utilization
 High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Low 0.76 (0.67, 0.85) 0.84 (0.74, 0.95)* 0.73 (0.64, 0.84) 0.86 (0.71, 1.01)
 Middle 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) 1.10 (0.99, 1.23) 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) 1.14 (1.01, 1.30)
Community-level media exposure
 Low 1.17 (1.07, 1.27) 1.11 (1.01, 1.23)* 1.30 (1.16, 1.45) 1.22 (1.09, 1.36) **
 High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. Note: ANC Antenatal Care, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, * = p value< 0.05, ** = p value≤0.01, *** = p value< 0.001