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Table 3 Proportion of prelacteal feeding by each sociodemographic characteristic and the absolute risk difference

From: Prelacteal feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers having children less than 2 years of age in East Africa: a multilevel analysis of the recent demographic and health surveys

Variables PF (unweighted) PF (weighted) Unweighted Proportion of PF (%) ARD (%) Weighted Proportion of PF (%) ARD (%)
No Yes No Yes
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 3152 505 3236 498 13.81 Ref. 13.33 Ref.
 20–24 7720 1144 7779 1045 12.91 0.90 11.84 1.47
 25–29 7362 1009 7571 951 12.05 1.76 11.15 2.18
 30–34 5408 810 5576 723 13.03 0.78 11.48 1.85
 35–39 3511 526 3610 494 13.03 0.78 12.48 0.85
 40–44 1390 205 1402 208 12.85 0.96 12.04 1.29
 45–49 271 43 289 41 13.69 0.12 12.91 0.42
Educational level
 No education 8392 1360 7400 1067 16.08 Ref. 12.60 Ref.
 Primary 14,407 1815 14,969 1862 11.19 4.89 11.06 1.54
 Sec & above 7311 1007 7094 1030 12.74 3.34 12.68 −0.80
Mother’s occupation
 Working 18,079 2750 18,695 2754 12.20 Ref. 12.84 Ref.
 Not working 10,735 1492 10,768 1206 13.20 1.00 10.07 2.77
Wealth index
 Poor 13,295 2146 13,436 1880 13.90 Ref. 12.27 Ref.
 Middle 5357 690 5798 738 11.41 2.49 11.29 0.98
 Rich 10,162 1406 10,230 1341 12.15 1.75 11.59 0.68
Sex of child
 Male 14,348 2174 14,709 2034 13.16 Ref. 12.14 Ref.
 Female 14,466 2068 14,754 1926 12.51 0.65 11.55 0.59
Multiple birth
 No 28,433 4145 29,097 3866 12.72 Ref. 11.73 Ref.
 Yes 381 97 367 93 20.29 −7.57 20.29 −8.56
Breastfeeding initiation
 Within 1 h 24,319 2323 24,808 2155 8.71 Ref. 7.99 Ref.
 After 1 h 4495 1919 4656 1804 29.92 −21.21 27.93 −19.94
Media exposure
 No 10,606 1561 10,772 1299 12.83 Ref. 10.76 Ref.
 Yes 18,208 2681 18,691 2661 12.83 0.00 12.46 −1.70
Parity
 Primiparous 5887 989 6070 951 14.38 Ref. 13.55 Ref.
 Multiparous Grand 14,712 1972 14,977 1835 11.81 2.57 10.91 2.64
 multiparous 8206 1281 8417 1173 13.50 0.88 12.24 1.31
ANC visits
 No 1890 559 2258 420 22.83 Ref. 15.69 Ref.
 One & two 3631 653 3793 585 15.24 7.59 13.35 2.34
 Three 7956 1020 8074 1000 11.36 11.47 11.02 4.67
 Four & above 15,337 2010 15,338 1955 11.59 11.24 11.30 4.39
Place of delivery
 Home 7173 1883 7438 1634 20.79 Ref. 18.01 Ref.
 Health facility 21,641 2359 22,026 2325 9.83 10.96 9.55 8.46
Cesarean delivery
 Yes 1531 435 1527 424 22.13 −9.88 21.72 −10.49
 No 27,283 3807 27,937 3535 12.25 Ref. 11.23 Ref.
Size of the child at birth
 Small 4637 932 4732 790 16.74 −4.22 14.32 −2.75
 Average 1557 2078 15,697 1987 11.77 0.75 11.23 0.34
 Large 8605 1232 9035 1182 12.52 Ref. 11.57 Ref.
Distance from the health facility
 Big problem 12,146 1852 13,005 1764 13.23 Ref. 11.95 Ref.
 Not a big problem 16,668 2390 16,459 2195 12.54 0.69 11.77 0.18
Residence
 Urban 7207 1111 6613 997 13.36 Ref. 13.10 Ref.
 Rural 21,607 3131 22,851 2962 12.66 0.70 11.48 1.62
Community-level women education
 Low 14,506 2059 15,396 1973 12.43 Ref. 11.36 Ref.
 High 14,308 2183 14,068 1986 13.24 −0.81 12.37 −1.01
Community poverty level
 Low 14,100 2172 15,096 2112 13.35 Ref. 12.27 Ref.
 High 14,714 2070 14,368 1847 12.33 1.02 11.39 0.88
Community-level of ANC utilization
 High 6430 962 6159 885 13.01 Ref. 12.56 Ref.
 Low 10,037 1275 10,980 1278 11.27 1.74 10.43 2.13
 Middle 12,347 2005 12,325 1796 13.97 −0.96 12.72 − 0.16
Community-level media exposure
 Low 14,287 1968 14,342 1705 12.11 1.41 10.63 2.34
 High 14,527 2274 15,122 2254 13.53 Ref. 12.97 Ref.
Country
 Burundi 2349 155 2440 139 6.19 32.30 5.39 33.71
 Ethiopia 3199 622 3728 322 16.28 22.21 7.95 31.21
 Kenya 3134 525 2867 519 14.35 24.14 15.31 23.90
 Comoros 666 422 686 443 38.49 Ref. 39.21 Ref.
 Madagascar 1672 654 1757 617 28.12 10.37 26.00 13.21
 Malawi 2078 63 2065 66 2.94 35.35 3.08 36.13
 Mozambique 4009 238 4288 261 5.60 32.89 5.75 33.46
 Rwanda 1417 64 1441 66 4.32 34.17 4.34 34.87
 ’Tanzania 3404 598 3411 545 14.94 23.55 13.78 25.43
 Uganda 1406 441 1355 452 23.88 14.61 25.01 14.20
 Zambia 3544 213 3444 247 5.67 32.82 7.70 31.51
 Zimbabwe 1936 247 1981 283 11.31 27.18 12.49 26.72
  1. Note: PF Prelacteal Feeding, ARD Attributable Risk Difference, Ref. Reference