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Table 3 Comparison of best perinatal care practices implemented in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, by annual number of deliveries and level of hospital commitment to BFHI, for women without COVID-19, with mild COVID-19, and with severe COVID-19. BFHI maternity hospitals in Spain, May 2020

From: Good practices in perinatal care and breastfeeding protection during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: a national situation analysis among BFHI maternity hospitals in Spain

Women without COVID-19
  Annual births   Level of commitment to BFHI  
  <  1500 1500   Phase < 2D Phase ≥ 2D  
  N = 25
n (%)
N = 25
n (%)
p-value N = 19
n (%)
N = 31
n (%)
p-value
Companion of choice during labour 25 (100) 25 (100) 1 19 (100) 31 (100) 1
Companion of choice during delivery 6 (24) 6 (24) 1 2 (10.5) 10 (32.3) 0.08
Immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth 16 (64) 10 (40) 0.004 7 (36.8) 19 (61.3) 0.09
Breastfeeding in the first hour of life 16 (64) 9 (36) 0.04 9 (47.4) 16 (51.6) 0.77
Rooming-in 25 (100) 24 (96) 0.31 19 (100) 30 (96.8) 0.43
Companion of choice during hospital stay 23 (92) 22 (88) 0.64 17 (89.5) 28 (90.3) 0.92
Breastfeeding support 22 (88) 25 (100) 0.07 16 (84.2) 31 (100) 0.02
Follow-up if discharged early 24 (96) 21 (84) 0.16 16 (84.2) 29 (93.5) 0.28
Special breastfeeding support measures 11 (44) 7 (28) 0.24 6 (31.6) 12 (38.7) 0.61
Women with mild COVID-19
  Annual births   Level of commitment to BFHI  
  <  1500 1500   Phase < 2D Phase ≥ 2D  
  N = 25
n (%)
N = 25
n (%)
p-value N = 19
n (%)
N = 31
n (%)
p-value
Companion of choice during labour 21 (84) 21 (84) 1 15 (78.9) 27 (87.1) 0.44
Companion of choice during delivery 5 (20) 4 (16) 0.71 2 (10.5) 7 (22.6) 0.28
Immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth 11 (44) 5 (20) 0.07 2 (10.5) 14 (45.2) 0.01
Breastfeeding in the first hour of life 13 (52) 5 (20) 0.02 5 (26.3) 13 (41.9) 0.26
Rooming-in 18 (72) 19 (76) 0.75 11 (57.9) 26 (83.9) 0.04
Companion of choice during hospital stay 17 (68) 17 (68) 1 10 (52.6) 24 (77.4) 0.07
Breastfeeding support 20 (80) 19 (76) 0.73 12 (63.2) 27 (87.1) 0.047
Follow-up if discharged early 23 (92) 16 (64) 0.016 15 (78.9) 24 (77.4) 0.90
Special breastfeeding support measures 11 (44) 9 (36) 0.56 5 (26.3) 15 (48.4) 0.12
Women with severe COVID-19
  Annual births   Level of commitment to BFHI  
  <  1500 1500   Phase < 2D Phase ≥ 2D  
  N = 22
n (%)
N = 25
n (%)
p-value N = 18
n (%)
N = 29
n (%)
p-value
Companion of choice during labour 15 (68.2) 17 (68) 0.99 11 (61.1) 21 (72.4) 0.42
Companion of choice during delivery 2 (9.1) 4 (16) 0.48 1 (5.5) 5 (17.2) 0.24
Milk expression encouraged and supported 17 (77.3) 20 (80) 0.82 11 (61.1) 26 (89.7) 0.02
  1. N: Total responses, n: hospitals that implemented the practice for all deliveries, excluding emergency caesarean sections. Some questions were not responded by all hospitals