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Table 3 Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression analysis on determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding in SSA

From: Maternal and child factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding in sub-Saharan Africa

Variable Model I
aOR 95% CI
Model II
aOR 95% CI
Model III
aOR 95% CI
Mother's age
 15–19 1 1 1
 20–24 1.26*** (1.18,1.34) 1.20*** (1.13,1.28) 1.18*** (1.10,1.26)
 25–29 1.40*** (1.32,1.49) 1.35*** (1.26,1.46) 1.32*** (1.22,1.42)
 30–34 1.41*** (1.32,1.51) 1.45*** (1.34,1.58) 1.38*** (1.27,1.50)
 35–39 1.41*** (1.31,151) 1.51*** (1.38,1.65) 1.43*** (1.30,1.56)
 40–44 1.44*** (1.31,157) 1.56*** (1.40,1.74) 1.49*** (1.33,1.66)
 45–49 1.56*** (1.33,1.84) 1.71*** (1.44,2.04) 1.63*** (1.36,1.94)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1 1 1
 Poorer 0.97 (0.93,1.02) 0.97 (0.921,1.01) 0.99 (0.94,1.03)
 Middle 1.01 (0.96,1.06) 1.01 (0.96,1.06) 1.02 (0.97,1.07)
 Richer 1.03 (0.98,1.09) 1.02 (0.97,1.08) 1.02 (0.97,1.08)
 Richest 1.19*** (1.011,1.27) 1.17*** (1.10,1.25) 1.13*** (1.05,1.20)
Marital status
 Never married 1 1 1
 Married 0.98 (0.91,1.06) 0.96 (0.89,1.03) 0.91* (0.85,0.98)
 Cohabiting 0.86*** (0.79,0.93) 0.84*** (0.78,0.91) 0.87** (0.80,0.95)
 Widowed 1.04 (0.87,1.25) 1.02 (0.84,1.22) 1.00 (0.83,1.20)
 Divorced 0.94 (0.85,1.05) 0.92 (0.83,1.02) 0.90* (0.81,1.00)
Mother’s education level
 No education 1 1 1
 Primary 1.22*** (1.17,1.27) 1.21*** (1.16,1.26) 1.21*** (1.16,1.26)
 Secondary+ 1.03 (0.97,1.08) 1.02 (0.96–1.07) 1.03 (0.98,1.09)
Employment status
 Not working 1 1 1
 Working 0.85*** (0.82,0.88) 0.85*** (0.82,0.88) 0.90*** (0.87,0.93)
Frequency of reading newspaper
 Not at all 1 1 1
 Less than once a week 1.14***(1.07,1.22) 1.13*** (1.06,1.21) 1.13*** (1.06,1.21)
 At least once a week 1.07 (0.98,1.16) 1.06 (0.97,1.15) 1.09* (1.00,1.19)
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all 1 1 1
 Less than once a week 0.96 (0.92,1.01) 0.96 (0.92,1.01) 0.93** (0.88,0.97)
 At least once a week 1.07*** (1.02,1.11) 1.06** (1.02,1.10) 1.03 (0.99,1.07)
Frequency of watching to television
 Not at all 1 1 1
 Less than once a week 0.81*** (0.77,0.87) 0.82*** (0.78,0.87) 0.82*** (0.77,0.86)
 At least once a week 0.71*** (0.67,0.75) 0.70*** (0.67,0.74) 0.74*** (0.70,0.78)
Number of ANC visits
 0 1 1 1
 1–3 1.13*** (1.07,1.20) 1.12*** (1.05,1.19) 1.10** (1.03,1.17)
 4+ 1.15*** (1.08,1.22) 1.13*** (1.07,1.20) 1.11** (1.03,1.17)
Place of delivery
 Home 1 1 1
 Health facility 1.32*** (1.24,1.39 1.29*** (1.22,1.37) 1.41*** (1.33,1.50)
Assisted by a health worker during delivery
 No 1 1 1
 Yes 1.39*** (1.32,1.47) 1.41*** (1.34,1.49) 1.26*** (1.19,1.33)
Type of delivery
 Vaginal birth 1 1 1
 Cesarean section 0.31*** (0.28,0.33) 0.31*** (0.29,0.34) 0.30*** (0.27,0.32)
Size of child at birth
 Larger than average   1 1
 Average   1.20*** (1.15,1.24) 1.19*** (1.15,1.24)
 Smaller than average   0.97 (0.92,1.02) 0.94* (0.90,0.99)
Birth order
 1st   1 1
 2–4   1.13*** (1.07,1.19) 1.15*** (1.09,1.21)
 5+   0.93* (0.87,1.00) 0.97 (0.90,1.04)
Twin status
 Single birth   1 1
 Multiple birth   0.65*** (0.57,0.74) 0.67*** (0.59,0.76)
Sub Region
 West Africa    1
 East Africa    1.71*** (1.64,1.78)
 Central Africa    0.80*** (0.75,0.84)
 Southern African    2.13*** (1.97,2.31)
N 60,038 60,038 60,038
Pseudo R2 0.027 0.030 0.046
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  3. aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  4. Model I: Maternal factors
  5. Model II: Child factors
  6. Model III: Maternal factors, child factors and sub-region