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Table 2 Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for breastfed infants under 6 months

From: Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months in China: a cross-sectional study

  0–1 months 2–3 months 4–5 months Total
  EBF/BF (%) aOR (95%CI)
(n = 1667)
EBF/BF (%) aOR (95%CI)
(n = 1628)
EBF/BF (%) aOR (95%CI)
(n = 1562)
EBF/BF (%) aOR (95%CI)
(n = 4857)
Child health
 Caesarean delivery a
  No 396/1087 (36.4) 1.00 (reference) 389/1001 (38.9) 1.00 (reference) 230/982 (23.4) 1.00 (reference) 1015/3070 (33.1) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 190/613 (31.0)* 0.89 (0.70, 1.12) 215/651 (33.0)* 0.77 (0.62, 0.97) 121/608 (19.9) 0.72 (0.55, 0.94) 526/1872 (28.1)* 0.80 (0.70, 0.92)
 Preterm b
  No 573/1637 (35.0) 1.00 (reference) 583/1582 (36.9) 1.00 (reference) 333/1519 (21.9) 1.00 (reference) 1489/4738 (31.4) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 10/52 (19.2)* 0.49 (0.24, 1.03) 15/52 (28.8) 0.81 (0.43, 1.52) 16/57 (28.1) 1.17 (0.62, 2.22) 41/161 (25.5) 0.78 (0.53, 1.13)
 Disease history a
  No 411/1026 (40.1) 1.00 (reference) 312/761 (41.0) 1.00 (reference) 146/691 (21.1) 1.00 (reference) 869/2478 (35.1) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 172/660 (26.1)* 0.56 (0.45, 0.71) 290/885 (32.8)* 0.68 (0.55, 0.84) 200/887 (22.5) 1.05 (0.81, 1.36) 662/2432 (27.2)* 0.71 (0.63, 0.81)
Maternal sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (years) a
   < 25 113/327 (34.6) 1.00 (reference) 124/318 (39.0) 1.00 (reference) 60/315 (19.0) 1.00 (reference) 297/960 (30.9) 1.00 (reference)
  25–29 244/675 (36.1) 1.07 (0.79, 1.44) 231/655 (35.3) 0.65 (0.48, 0.88) 127/592 (21.5) 0.90 (0.62, 1.30) 602/1922 (31.3) 0.86 (0.72, 1.04)
  30–34 147/443 (33.2) 0.91 (0.64, 1.27) 156/424 (36.8) 0.70 (0.50, 0.99) 104/423 (24.6) 1.09 (0.73, 1.63) 407/1290 (31.6) 0.87 (0.71, 1.06)
  35–39 76/225 (33.8) 0.89 (0.59, 1.33) 81/213 (38.0) 0.70 (0.47, 1.05) 52/207 (25.1) 1.05 (0.66, 1.68) 209/645 (32.4) 0.87 (0.68, 1.11)
  40- 6/26 (23.1) 0.52 (0.19, 1.41) 12/40 (30.0) 0.49 (0.23, 1.04) 8/51 (15.7) 0.54 (0.23, 1.30) 26/117 (22.2) 0.56 (0.35, 0.91)
 Ethnic origin a
  Han 495/1479 (33.5) 1.00 (reference) 533/1411 (37.8) 1.00 (reference) 308/1353 (22.8) 1.00 (reference) 1336/4243 (31.5) 1.00 (reference)
  Other 90/217 (41.5)* 1.41 (1.00, 1.98) 73/241 (30.3)* 0.65 (0.47, 0.92) 43/237 (18.1) 0.83 (0.55, 1.27) 206/695 (29.6) 0.93 (0.76, 1.13)
 Education level a
  Middle school or below 217/694 (31.3) 1.00 (reference) 218/697 (31.3) 1.00 (reference) 126/693 (18.2) 1.00 (reference) 561/2084 (26.9) 1.00 (reference)
  High school 109/326 (33.4) 1.18 (0.87, 1.62) 107/301 (35.5) 1.15 (0.83, 1.58) 56/281 (19.9) 1.03 (0.70, 1.52) 272/908 (30.0) 1.15 (0.95, 1.39)
  College school or higher 258/675 (38.2)* 1.44 (1.03, 2.01) 279/653 (42.7)* 1.24 (0.89, 1.74) 169/615 (27.5)* 1.19 (0.81, 1.75) 706/1943 (36.3)* 1.32 (1.08, 1.61)
Maternal health
 Height (cm) b
  First Quarter 122/373 (32.7) 1.00 (reference) 150/402 (37.3) 1.00 (reference) 82/393 (20.9) 1.00 (reference) 354/1168 (30.3) 1.00 (reference)
  Second Quarter 194/584 (33.2) 0.93 (0.69, 1.25) 189/577 (32.8) 0.77 (0.57, 1.02) 124/570 (21.8) 0.96 (0.68, 1.35) 507/1731 (29.3) 0.86 (0.73, 1.03)
  Third Quarter 98/277 (35.4) 1.02 (0.71, 1.46) 91/263 (34.6) 0.81 (0.57, 1.15) 55/219 (25.1) 1.21 (0.79, 1.85) 244/759 (32.1) 0.94 (0.76, 1.16)
  Fourth Quarter 137/402 (34.1) 0.93 (0.67, 1.29) 144/357 (40.3) 0.93 (0.67, 1.29) 69/346 (19.9) 0.77 (0.52, 1.15) 350/1105 (31.7)* 0.89 (0.73, 1.08)
 Body-mass index b
  Normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2) 363/1019 (35.6) 1.00 (reference) 371/1013 (36.6) 1.00 (reference) 216/981 (22.0) 1.00 (reference) 950/3013 (31.5) 1.00 (reference)
  Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 74/206 (35.9) 1.06 (0.76, 1.49) 71/211 (33.6) 0.90 (0.64, 1.26) 33/183 (18.0) 0.76 (0.49, 1.18) 178/600 (29.7) 0.94 (0.76, 1.15)
  Overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2) 74/285 (26.0) 0.68 (0.50, 0.93) 92/269 (34.2) 1.06 (0.78, 1.43) 57/249 (22.9) 1.06 (0.74, 1.53) 223/803 (27.8) 0.90 (0.75, 1.08)
  Obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) 26/98 (26.5)* 0.67 (0.41, 1.09) 34/92 (37.0) 1.17 (0.73, 1.86) 23/104 (22.1) 1.03 (0.61, 1.72) 83/294 (28.2)* 0.93 (0.70, 1.23)
 Complications during pregnancy or parturition b
  No 531/1511 (35.1) 1.00 (reference) 531/1446 (36.7) 1.00 (reference) 306/1396 (21.9) 1.00 (reference) 1368/4353 (31.4) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 50/171 (29.2) 0.74 (0.50, 1.08) 67/186 (36.0) 0.92 (0.65, 1.30) 41/174 (23.6) 0.94 (0.62, 1.40) 158/531 (29.8) 0.87 (0.70, 1.07)
Setting and social support for breastfeeding
 Support from husbands b
  No 27/130 (20.8) 1.00 (reference) 35/128 (27.3) 1.00 (reference) 19/116 (16.4) 1.00 (reference) 81/374 (21.7) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 546/1544 (35.4)* 1.40 (0.72, 2.71) 564/1509 (37.4)* 1.91 (1.04, 3.49) 318/1451 (21.9) 1.59 (0.75, 3.36) 1428/4504 (31.7)* 1.72 (1.18, 2.51)
 Support from grandmothers b
  No 15/89 (16.9) 1.00 (reference) 30/95 (31.6) 1.00 (reference) 22/98 (22.4) 1.00 (reference) 67/282 (23.8) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 560/1592 (35.2)* 1.22 (0.51, 2.91) 566/1545 (36.6) 0.75 (0.39, 1.46) 321/1477 (21.7) 0.65 (0.32, 1.33) 1447/4614 (31.4)* 0.77 (0.51, 1.17)
 Support from the best friends b
  No 23/129 (17.8) 1.00 (reference) 42/133 (31.6) 1.00 (reference) 21/139 (15.1) 1.00 (reference) 86/401 (21.4) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 539/1498 (36.0)* 2.40 (1.28, 4.50) 532/1422 (37.4) 1.33 (0.82, 2.16) 307/1380 (22.2) 1.51 (0.80, 2.82) 1378/4300 (32.0)* 1.64 (1.19, 2.26)
 Provision of breastfeeding education by hospitals
  No 127/384 (33.1) 1.00 (reference) 115/376 (30.6) 1.00 (reference) 50/342 (14.6) 1.00 (reference) 292/1102 (26.5) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 460/1317 (34.9) 0.98 (0.74, 1.30) 491/1279 (38.4)* 1.21 (0.92, 1.61) 301/1251 (24.1)* 1.43 (0.99, 2.06) 1252/3847 (32.5)* 1.14 (0.96, 1.35)
 Employment and paid maternity leave (PML) a
  Unemployment 194/595 (32.6) 1.00 (reference) 186/562 (33.1) 1.00 (reference) 118/567 (20.8) 1.00 (reference) 498/1724 (28.9) 1.00 (reference)
  Informal employment 197/560 (35.2) 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 189/568 (33.3) 1.13 (0.86, 1.49) 92/534 (17.2) 0.88 (0.63, 1.22) 478/1662 (28.8) 1.00 (0.85, 1.18)
 Formal employment
  without PML 29/83 (34.9) 0.92 (0.53, 1.57) 30/78 (38.5) 1.38 (0.82, 2.31) 13/78 (16.7) 0.88 (0.44, 1.76) 72/239 (30.1) 1.03 (0.75, 1.42)
  with 0–2 months of PML 5/28 (17.9) 0.42 (0.14, 1.19) 20/34 (58.8) 3.09 (1.43, 6.69) 4/20 (20.0) 0.95 (0.30, 3.03) 29/82 (35.4) 1.24 (0.75, 2.04)
  with 3–5 months of PML 154/411 (37.5) 1.00 (0.70, 1.43) 166/390 (42.6) 1.33 (0.93, 1.90) 108/366 (29.5) 1.68 (1.12, 2.53) 428/1167 (36.7) 1.22 (0.99, 1.51)
  with ≥6 months of PML 8/24 (33.3) 1.02 (0.38, 2.76) 14/22 (63.6)* 3.27 (1.27, 8.37) 16/27 (59.3)* 6.74 (2.81, 16.16) 38/73 (52.1)* 2.77 (1.65, 4.65)
 Social support a
  No 473/1437 (32.9) 1.00 (reference) 506/1422 (35.6) 1.00 (reference) 297/1358 (21.9) 1.00 (reference) 1276/4217 (30.3) 1.00 (reference)
  Yes 109/257 (42.4)* 1.64 (1.22, 2.21) 98/228 (43.0)* 1.63 (1.19, 2.24) 54/232 (23.3) 1.18 (0.81, 1.71) 261/717 (36.4)* 1.49 (1.24, 1.78)
  1. EBF indicates exclusively breastfed infants, BF indicates breastfed infants, and aORs indicates adjusted odds ratios
  2. aOR were adjusted for residents, infant sex and age of months, and other variables listed in the table
  3. * p value < 0.05 for univariate analysis
  4. a Listwise deletion in logistic regression was used to handle missing data of these variables with < 1% missing data
  5. b A category “unknown” was assigned to the missing value of these variables with ≥1% missing data; these cases were also included in the analysis but the results are not presented