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Table 1 Study characteristics (n = 20)

From: Evaluating antenatal breastmilk expression outcomes: a scoping review

Author (year of publication), Country of origin Study objective(s) Study design Study setting Sample size Study population Timing of aBME
Blaikley et al. (1953) [44] United Kingdom Breast-feeding: factors affecting success A report of a trial of the Woolwich methods in a group of primiparae. Interventional study Hospital lying-in ward n = 222 Pregnant women After 32–33 weeks’ gestation
Brisbane et al. (2015) [34] Australia To discuss the qualitative outcomes of women who attended a prenatal care clinic at 37 weeks’ gestation which supports the antenatal expression of colostrum. Descriptive study - Qualitative study and/or survey Antenatal breastfeeding clinic n = 57 Pregnant women After 37 weeks’ gestation
Brown et al. (1975) [47] United States Preparation of the breast for breastfeeding. Interventional study – randomized prospective cohort Hospital in Colorado n = 57 Pregnant women 3 weeks prior to expected delivery
Casey et al. (2019) [36] Australia To compare rates of neonatal hypoglycaemia in babies born to mothers who express and store antenatal colostrum to babies born to mothers who do not. Observational study - Retrospective cohort Regional public hospital n = 303 Pregnant women with diabetes Between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestation
Casey et al. (2019) [35] Australia To explore the perspectives and experiences of women who have had diabetes in pregnancy and were encouraged to collect and store colostrum in the antenatal period. Descriptive study - Qualitative study and/or survey Regional public hospital n = 6 Pregnant women with diabetes Not defined
Clay (2005) [43] United Kingdom To provide an example of a collaborative partnership approach between a multidisciplinary team in a joint antenatal diabetes clinic and a mother with type 1 diabetes to help her experience the harvesting of colostrum in the antenatal period and enable a positive breast-feeding outcome for her newborn daughter. Descriptive study - Case study Antenatal diabetes clinic n = 1 Pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes After 36 weeks’ gestation
Demirci et al. (2018) [38] United States To report on maternal experiences and breastfeeding outcomes in mothers with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy who engaged in aBME. Descriptive study - Case series Hospital-based midwife practice n = 4 Pregnant women with hypertension Beginning ‘around’ 37 weeks’ gestation
Demirci et al. (2019) [37] United States To examine the experiences of first-time mothers in the United States who participated in a pilot study of aBME. Descriptive study - Qualitative study and/or survey Hospital-based midwife practice n = 19 Pregnant women After 37 weeks’ gestation
Fair et al. (2018) [39] United Kingdom To assess women’s knowledge, practices, and opinions of aBME as well as any differences within the overweight and obese subgroups. Descriptive study - Qualitative study and/or survey Online recruitment through a maternity service user and Facebook parenting group n = 688 Women who are pregnant or who have given birth Between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation
Forster et al. (2011) [13] Australia To determine the feasibility and begin assessing the safety and efficacy of conducting a randomised control trial to evaluate antenatal breastmilk expression in mothers with diabetes. Interventional study - Pilot study Public, tertiary, women’s hospital n = 43 Pregnant women with diabetes After 36 weeks’ gestation
Forster et al. (2017) [21] Australia To determine the safety and efficacy of aBME in women with diabetes in pregnancy. Interventional study - Randomised controlled trial Multi-center study across six hospitals n = 632 Pregnant women with diabetes After 36 weeks’ gestation
Ingelman-Sundberg (1958) [46] Sweden To study the advantages of antenatal nipple message and expression of colostrum in pregnant women. Observational study - Prospective cohort Private lying-in ward n = 656 Pregnant women After 20 weeks’ gestation
Lamba et al. (2016) [40] India To study the effect of aBME at term pregnancy and subsequent effect on postnatal lactation performance. Interventional study Tertiary care hospital n = 200 Pregnant women After 37 weeks’ gestation
O’Sullivan et al. (2019) [24] Australia To determine whether an online instructional video can improve knowledge and confidence around the antenatal expression of colostrum. Interventional study - before/after comparison Online recruitment through social media via university and research institutions, infant and mother organizations, and personal contacts n = 95 Pregnant women Not defined
Rietveld (2011) [42] New Zealand To determine if pregnant woman with Type 1, Type 2 or gestational diabetes mellitus can effectively achieve antenatal colostrum harvesting and banking.
To assess the feasibility of mothers and core midwifery staff using banked colostrum as part of the care of hypoglycaemic babies in the hospital setting.
Interventional study - Pilot study Antenatal diabetic outpatient clinic n = 10 Pregnant women with diabetes After 34 weeks’ gestation
Singh et al. (2009) [16] India To study the effect of aBME at term in reducing breast feeding failure compared to conventional method of breastfeeding initiation. Interventional study Not stated n = 180 Pregnant women After 37 weeks’ gestation
Soltani et al. (2012) [20] United Kingdom To examine the adoption of aBME as an intervention and investigate its relationship to birth outcomes among mothers with diabetes. Observational study - Retrospective cohort National health service trust n = 85 Pregnant women with diabetes After 36 weeks’ gestation
Uikey et al. (2017) [41] India To study the effect of aBME in improving lactational performance. Interventional study Tertiary care center n = 200 Pregnant women After 37 weeks’ gestation
Waller (1946) [45] United Kingdom The early failure of breastfeeding: A clinical study of its cause and their prevention. Interventional study Hospital lying-in ward n = 200 Pregnant women Last 3 months of pregnancy
Weinel et al. (2019) [33] Australia To support mothers who had pre-existing or gestational diabetes, and who were on more than 20 units of insulin per day, to express colostrum in the antenatal period at 36 weeks’ gestation and to promote breastfeeding. Quality improvement study Diabetic antenatal care education clinic n = 207 Pregnant women with diabetes After 36 weeks’ gestation
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