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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants stratified by feeding practice and period. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2018

From: Predicting risk of early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding at a Brazilian referral hospital for high-risk neonates and infants: a decision-tree analysis

Characteristics   Hospital discharge 3 months of age 6 months of age
  % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
  EBF (N = 495) PBF (N = 208) NBF (N = 54) EPB (N = 302) PBF (N = 166) NBF (N = 58) EPB (N = 137) PBF (N = 231) NBF (N = 91)
Child-related factors
 Sex female 48.1 (43.6–52.6) 46.6 (39.7–53.7) 48.1 (34.3–62.2) 49.3 (43.6–55.1) 53.0 (45.1–60.8) 39.7 (27.0–53.4) 43.1 (34.6–51.8) 50.6 (44.0–57.3) 42.9 (32.5–53.7)
male 51.9 (47.4–56.4) 53.4 (46.3–60.3) 51.9 (37.8–65.7) 50.7 (44.9–56.4) 47.0 (39.2–54.9) 60.3 (46.6–73.0) 56.9 (48.2–65.4) 49.4 (42.7–56.0) 57.1 (46.3–67.5)
 Multiple births no 87.7 (84.5–90.4) 76.0 (69.6–81.6) 79.6 (66.5–89.4) 93.0 (89.6–95.6) 70.5 (62.9–77.3) 74.1 (61.0–84.7) 95.6 (90.7–98.4) 92.6 (88.5–95.7) 71.4 (61.0–80.4)
yes 12.3 (9.6–15.5) 24.0 (18.4–30.4) 20.4 (10.6–33.5) 7.0 (4.4–10.4) 29.5 (22.7–37.1) 25.9 (15.3–39.0) 4.4 (1.6–9.3) 7.4 (4.3–11.5) 28.6 (19.6–39.0)
 Gestational age (weeks) >  37 85.7 (82.3–88.6) 68.8 (62.0–75.0) 42.6 (29.2–56.8) 89.1 (85.0–92.4) 72.3 (64.8–78.9) 60.3 (46.6–73.0) 89.1 (82.6–93.7) 88.3 (83.5–92.2) 60.4 (49.6–70.5)
<  37 14.3 (11.4–17.7) 31.2 (25.0–38.0) 57.4 (43.2–70.8) 10.9 (7.6–15.0) 27.7 (21.1–35.2) 39.7 (27.0–53.4) 10.9 (6.3–17.4) 11.7 (7.8–16.5) 39.6 (29.5–50.4)
 Birth weight ELBW 0.4 (0.0–1.5) 0.5 (0.0–2.6) 9.3 (3.1–20.3) 0.0 (0.0–1.2) 1.2 (0.1–4.3) 0.0 (0.0–6.2) 0.0 (0.0–2.7) 0.4 (0.0–2.4) 2.2 (0.3–7.7)
VLBW 0.2 (0.0–1.1) 1.9 (0.5–4.9) 16.7 (7.9–29.3) 0.7 (0.1–2.4) 1.8 (0.4–5.2) 5.2 (1.1–14.4) 0.7 (0.0–4.0) 0.9 (0.1–3.1) 5.5 (1.8–12.4)
LBW 10.1 (7.6–13.1) 27.9 (21.9–34.5) 20.4 (10.6–33.5) 10.6 (7.4–14.6) 21.7 (15.7–28.7) 20.7 (11.2–33.4) 9.5 (5.1–15.7) 10.8 (7.1–15.6) 25.3 (16.7–35.5)
> 2500 g 89.3 (86.2–91.9) 69.7 (63.0–75.9) 53.7 (39.6–67.4) 88.7 (84.6–92.1) 75.3 (68.0–81.7) 74.1 (61.0–84.7) 89.8 (83.4–94.3) 87.9 (83.0–91.8) 67.0 (56.4–76.5)
 Perinatal morbidity no 69.3 (65.0–73.3) 48.1 (41.1–55.1) 0.0 (0.0–6.6) 71.9 (66.4–76.9) 54.2 (46.3–62.0) 37.9 (25.5–51.6) 70.1 (61.7–77.6) 70.6 (64.2–76.4) 34.1 (24.5–44.7)
yes 30.7 (26.7–35.0) 51.9 (44.9–58.9) 100.0 (93.4–100.0) 28.1 (23.1–33.6) 45.8 (38.0–53.7) 62.1 (48.4–74.5) 29.9 (22.4–38.3) 29.4 (23.6–35.8) 65.9 (55.3–75.5)
 Hospital readmission no 95.7 (92.8–97.7) 92.8 (87.7–96.2) 82.8 (70.6–91.4) 97.1 (92.7–99.2) 93.9 (90.0–96.6) 91.2 (83.4–96.1)
yes 4.3 (2.3–7.2) 7.2 (3.8–12.3) 17.2 (8.6–29.4) 2.9 (0.8–7.3) 6.1 (3.4–10.0) 8.8 (3.9–16.6)
Mother-related factors
 Maternal age <  20 y.o. 10.9 (8.3–14.0) 6.2 (3.4–10.5) 20.4 (10.6–33.5) 10.3 (7.1–14.3) 6.6 (3.4–11.5) 8.6 (2.9–19.0) 8.0 (4.1–13.9) 10.0 (6.4–14.6) 9.9 (4.6–17.9)
from 20 to 34 y.o. 69.7 (65.4–73.7) 76.0 (69.6–81.6) 59.3 (45.0–72.4) 71.5 (66.1–76.5) 68.7 (61.0–75.6) 74.1 (61.0–84.7) 75.9 (67.9–82.8) 63.6 (57.1–69.8) 73.6 (63.3–82.3)
>  35 y.o. 19.4 (16.0–23.2) 17.8 (12.8–23.7) 20.4 (10.6–33.5) 18.2 (14.0–23.0) 24.7 (18.3–32.0) 17.2 (8.6–29.4) 16.1 (10.3–23.3) 26.4 (20.8–32.6) 16.5 (9.5–25.7)
 Maternal education up to elementary school 32.3 (28.2–36.6) 34.1 (27.7–41.0) 38.9 (25.9–53.1) 27.8 (22.8–33.2) 33.1 (26.0–40.8) 31.0 (19.5–44.5) 27.0 (19.8–35.3) 25.5 (20.0–31.7) 31.9 (22.5–42.5)
secondary school or higher 67.7 (63.4–71.8) 65.9 (59.0–72.3) 61.1 (46.9–74.1) 72.2 (66.8–77.2) 66.9 (59.2–74.0) 69.0 (55.5–80.5) 73.0 (64.7–80.2) 74.5 (68.3–80.0) 68.1 (57.5–77.5)
 Household income a less than $576 37.8 (33.5–42.2) 38.9 (32.3–45.9) 51.9 (37.8–65.7) 37.1 (31.6–42.8) 36.1 (28.8–44.0) 46.6 (33.3–60.1) 41.6 (33.3–50.3) 34.2 (28.1–40.7) 38.5 (28.4–49.2)
over $576 62.2 (57.8–66.5) 61.1 (54.1–67.7) 48.1 (34.3–62.2) 62.9 (57.2–68.4) 63.9 (56.0–71.2) 53.4 (39.9–66.7) 58.4 (49.7–66.7) 65.8 (59.3–71.9) 61.5 (50.8–71.6)
 Parity and PEBF primiparous 49.5 (45.0–54.0) 45.2 (38.3–52.2) 63.0 (48.7–75.7) 51.3 (45.5–57.1) 47.6 (39.8–55.5) 43.1 (30.2–56.8) 54.0 (45.3–62.6) 50.2 (43.6–56.8) 45.1 (34.6–55.8)
multiparous with PEBF 46.1 (41.6–50.6) 47.1 (40.2–54.1) 35.2 (22.7–49.4) 45.0 (39.3–50.8) 46.4 (38.6–54.3) 41.4 (28.6–55.1) 43.1 (34.6–51.8) 44.6 (38.1–51.2) 42.9 (32.5–53.7)
multiparous without PEBF 4.4 (2.8–6.7) 7.7 (4.5–12.2) 1.9 (0.0–9.9) 3.6 (1.8–6.4) 6.0 (2.9–10.8) 15.5 (7.3–27.4) 2.9 (0.8–7.3) 5.2 (2.7–8.9) 12.1 (6.2–20.6)
 Gestational morbidity no 53.5 (49.0–58.0) 46.2 (39.2–53.2) 48.1 (34.3–62.2) 54.0 (48.2–59.7) 54.2 (46.3–62.0) 53.4 (39.9–66.7) 57.7 (48.9–66.1) 49.8 (43.2–56.4) 57.1 (46.3–67.5)
yes 46.5 (42.0–51.0) 53.8 (46.8–60.8) 51.9 (37.8–65.7) 46.0 (40.3–51.8) 45.8 (38.0–53.7) 46.6 (33.3–60.1) 42.3 (33.9–51.1) 50.2 (43.6–56.8) 42.9 (32.5–53.7)
 Maternal work and maternity leave does not work 48.3 (43.8–52.8) 51.4 (44.4–58.4) 57.4 (43.2–70.8) 47.7 (41.9–53.5) 48.2 (40.4–56.1) 65.5 (51.9–77.5) 54.0 (45.3–62.6) 42.4 (36.0–49.1) 59.3 (48.5–69.5)
works from home 4.8 (3.1–7.1) 5.3 (2.7–9.3) 3.7 (0.5–12.7) 4.0 (2.1–6.8) 9.0 (5.1–14.5) 0.0 (0.0–6.2) 4.4 (1.6–9.3) 6.1 (3.4–10.0) 3.3 (0.7–9.3)
ML up to 6 mos 6.1 (4.1–8.5) 3.8 (1.7–7.4) 3.7 (0.5–12.7) 7.3 (4.6–10.8) 4.2 (1.7–8.5) 5.2 (1.1–14.4) 8.0 (4.1–13.9) 6.1 (3.4–10.0) 2.2 (0.3–7.7)
ML up to 4 mos 29.1 (25.1–33.3) 27.4 (21.5–34.0) 16.7 (7.9–29.3) 27.8 (22.8–33.2) 25.9 (19.4–33.3) 24.1 (13.9–37.2) 19.0 (12.8–26.6) 33.3 (27.3–39.8) 23.1 (14.9–33.1)
works without ML benefits 11.7 (9.0–14.9) 12.0 (7.9–17.2) 18.5 (9.3–31.4) 13.2 (9.6–17.6) 12.7 (8.0–18.7) 5.2 (1.1–14.4) 14.6 (9.2–21.6) 12.1 (8.2–17.0) 12.1 (6.2–20.6)
Health service-related factors
 Mode of delivery cesarean 52.7 (48.2–57.2) 74.0 (67.5–79.9) 81.5 (68.6–90.7) 53.0 (47.2–58.7) 66.3 (58.5–73.4) 74.1 (61.0–84.7) 51.1 (42.4–59.7) 55.4 (48.8–61.9) 70.3 (59.8–79.5)
transpelvic 47.3 (42.8–51.8) 26.0 (20.1–32.5) 18.5 (9.3–31.4) 47.0 (41.3–52.8) 33.7 (26.6–41.5) 25.9 (15.3–39.0) 48.9 (40.3–57.6) 44.6 (38.1–51.2) 29.7 (20.5–40.2)
 Use of a pacifier no 93.7 (91.2–95.7) 77.9 (71.6–83.3) 35.2 (22.7–49.4) 92.7 (89.2–95.4) 84.3 (77.9–89.5) 69.0 (55.5–80.5) 94.9 (89.8–97.9) 89.2 (84.4–92.9) 67.0 (56.4–76.5)
yes 6.3 (4.3–8.8) 22.1 (16.7–28.4) 64.8 (50.6–77.3) 7.3 (4.6–10.8) 15.7 (10.5–22.1) 31.0 (19.5–44.5) 5.1 (2.1–10.2) 10.8 (7.1–15.6) 33.0 (23.5–43.6)
 Skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room yes 55.6 (51.1–60.0) 34.6 (28.2–41.5) 5.6 (1.2–15.4) 54.0 (48.2–59.7) 44.6 (36.9–52.5) 32.8 (21.0–46.3) 56.2 (47.5–64.7) 51.5 (44.9–58.1) 34.1 (24.5–44.7)
no 44.4 (40.0–48.9) 65.4 (58.5–71.8) 94.4 (84.6–98.8) 46.0 (40.3–51.8) 55.4 (47.5–63.1) 67.2 (53.7–79.0) 43.8 (35.3–52.5) 48.5 (41.9–55.1) 65.9 (55.3–75.5)
 BF difficulties no 44.6 (40.2–49.1) 38.5 (31.8–45.4) 7.4 (2.1–17.9) 46.0 (40.3–51.8) 39.2 (31.7–47.0) 20.7 (11.2–33.4) 48.9 (40.3–57.6) 44.6 (38.1–51.2) 28.6 (19.6–39.0)
yes 55.4 (50.9–59.8) 61.5 (54.6–68.2) 92.6 (82.1–97.9) 54.0 (48.2–59.7) 60.8 (53.0–68.3) 79.3 (66.6–88.8) 51.1 (42.4–59.7) 55.4 (48.8–61.9) 71.4 (61.0–80.4)
 Use of pasteurized donor human milk no 44.0 (39.6–48.5) 50.0 (43.0–57.0) 1.9 (0.0–9.9) 51.7 (45.9–57.4) 31.9 (24.9–39.6) 24.1 (13.9–37.2) 56.2 (47.5–64.7) 47.2 (40.6–53.8) 25.3 (16.7–35.5)
yes 56.0 (51.5–60.4) 50.0 (43.0–57.0) 98.1 (90.1–100.0) 48.3 (42.6–54.1) 68.1 (60.4–75.1) 75.9 (62.8–86.1) 43.8 (35.3–52.5) 52.8 (46.2–59.4) 74.7 (64.5–83.3)
 Use of cup-feeding no 44.2 (39.8–48.7) 13.0 (8.7–18.3) 53.7 (39.6–67.4) 36.4 (31.0–42.1) 27.1 (20.5–34.5) 27.6 (16.7–40.9) 39.4 (31.2–48.1) 35.1 (28.9–41.6) 38.5 (28.4–49.2)
yes 55.8 (51.3–60.2) 87.0 (81.7–91.3) 46.3 (32.6–60.4) 63.6 (57.9–69.0) 72.9 (65.5–79.5) 72.4 (59.1–83.3) 60.6 (51.9–68.8) 64.9 (58.4–71.1) 61.5 (50.8–71.6)
 NB received infant formula no 96.8 (94.8–98.1) 3.8 (1.7–7.4) 0.0 (0.0–6.6) 76.2 (70.9–80.9) 60.8 (53.0–68.3) 43.1 (30.2–56.8) 73.7 (65.5–80.9) 71.4 (65.1–77.2) 42.9 (32.5–53.7)
yes 3.2 (1.9–5.2) 96.2 (92.6–98.3) 100.0 (93.4–100.0) 23.8 (19.1–29.1) 39.2 (31.7–47.0) 56.9 (43.2–69.8) 26.3 (19.1–34.5) 28.6 (22.8–34.9) 57.1 (46.3–67.5)
 Place admission maternity ward 82.2 (78.6–85.5) 57.2 (50.2–64.0) 0.0 (0.0–6.6) 81.5 (76.6–85.7) 66.3 (58.5–73.4) 48.3 (35.0–61.8) 81.0 (73.4–87.2) 77.9 (72.0–83.1) 46.2 (35.6–56.9)
NICU 17.8 (14.5–21.4) 42.8 (36.0–49.8) 100.0 (93.4–100.0) 18.5 (14.3–23.4) 33.7 (26.6–41.5) 51.7 (38.2–65.0) 19.0 (12.8–26.6) 22.1 (16.9–28.0) 53.8 (43.1–64.4)
 Feeding practice at hospital discharge EBF 75.8 (70.6–80.5) 62.7 (54.8–70.0) 43.1 (30.2–56.8) 72.3 (64.0–79.6) 73.2 (67.0–78.8) 44.0 (33.6–54.8)
PBF 23.2 (18.5–28.4) 32.5 (25.5–40.2) 36.2 (24.0–49.9) 26.3 (19.1–34.5) 24.2 (18.9–30.3) 35.2 (25.4–45.9)
NBF 1.0 (0.2–2.9) 4.8 (2.1–9.3) 20.7 (11.2–33.4) 1.5 (0.2–5.2) 2.6 (1.0–5.6) 20.9 (13.1–30.7)
  1. Note: a Household income (expressed in comparison to a reference value of two Brazilian monthly minimum wages at the time of the perinatal interview). ‘Minimum wage’ refers to the monthly minimum wage, as established by law, for formal employees in Brazil. [http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2016/Decreto/D8948.htm]; [http://receita.economia.gov.br/orientacao/tributaria/declaracoes-e-demonstrativos/ecf-escrituracao-contabil-fiscal/taxas-de-cambio-incluindo-valor-do-dolar-para-fins-fiscais-irpj-AC-anteriores]
  2. Bold percentages refer to statistical significance (p-value < 0.005) and were based on Chi-square and Fisher tests
  3. EBF Exclusive breastfeeding. PBF Partial breastfeeding. EPB Exclusive or predominant breastfeeding. NBF Non-breastfed. CI Confidence interval. ELBW Extremely low birth weight. VLBW Very low birth weight. LBW Low birth weight. Y.O. years old. PEBF Previous experience of breastfeeding. ML Maternity leave. MOS Months. BF Breastfeeding. NB Newborn. NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit