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Table 3 Maternal weekly hours spent in unpaid childcare, personal care and free time activities, detailed feeding groups(a)

From: Association between breastfeeding and new mothers’ sleep: a unique Australian time use study

a. Maternal weekly hours spent in activity, by detailed feeding group (for all target infant ages)
Activity/Breastfeeding status A. Breastfed only (obs = 95) B. Formula only (obs = 5) C. Breastfed & formula fed (obs = 3) D. Breastfed & solids (obs = 185) E. Formula fed & solids (obs = 22) F. Breastfed & formula fed & solids (obs = 17) p-value
Necessary time
 Sleep, adult meals and other personal care time 58.46 66.24 62.93 66.08 67.70 68.91 .024
 Sleep 49.56 58.38 56.54 57.03 60.25 59.04 .004
Committed time
 Childcare 49.48 38.79 41.43 47.60 38.09 43.31 .060
 Sleeplessness 3.24 1.51 7.24 3.59 1.71 3.17 .222
Free time 20.66 19.87 21.10 18.99 22.01 17.01 .719
 Night-time parenting (sleep plus sleeplessness) 54.45 60.72 64.56 61.91 63.30 63.92 .008
b. Maternal weekly hours spent in activity, by age of target infant (for detailed feeding group)
Activity Age of target infant (months) p-value
3 (obs = 86) 6 (obs = 134) 9 (obs = 107)
Necessary time
 Sleep, adult meals and other personal care time 69.44 64.32 61.43 .006
 Maternal sleep 60.87 55.98 53.52 .006
Committed time
 Childcare 45.30 42.85 40.95 .239
 Sleeplessness 3.94 2.95 2.72 .510
Free time 19.64 19.30 20.80 .445
 Night-time parenting (sleep plus sleeplessness) 66.60 52.85 49.90 .002
  1. (a) Back- transformed means from residual maximum likelihood analysis, using linear mixed model. Note the back-transformed means will be similar, but not be the same as the predicted means for the original data due to the square root transformation and the unbalanced nature of the data. See supplementary table for predicted means and average standard error of difference