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Table 2 Maternal weekly hours spent in unpaid childcare and other domestic work, personal care and free time activities, combined feeding groups(a)

From: Association between breastfeeding and new mothers’ sleep: a unique Australian time use study

a. Activity/Breastfeeding status No breastfeeding(b)
(obs = 27)
Any breastfeeding(b)
(obs = 300)
p-value
Necessary time
 Sleep, adult meals and other personal care time 65.48 63.43 .409
 Maternal sleep 58.13 57.41 .085
Committed time
 Childcare 39.39 47.89 .007
 Sleeplessness 1.63 3.48 .029
 Other unpaid work 21.51 17.72 .039
Free time 22.26 19.47 .286
 Night-time (sleep plus disturbed sleep) 61.20 59.32 .379
b. Activity/Age of target infant (months) 3 months
(obs = 86)
6 months
(obs = 134)
9 months
(obs = 107)
p-value
Necessary time
 Sleep, adult meals and other personal care time 64.18 65.59 63.58 .186
 Sleep 55.79 57.32 55.65 .202
Committed time
 Childcare 47.1 42.97 40.66 < 0.001
 Sleeplessness 2.98 2.33 2.18 .135
 Other unpaid work 17.77 20.31 20.70 .003
Free time 21.60 19.86 21.09 .342
 Night-time (sleep plus disturbed sleep) 60.25 61.28 59.24 .154
  1. (a) Back- transformed means from residual maximum likelihood analysis, using linear mixed model. Note the back-transformed means will be similar, but not be the same as the predicted means for the original data due to the square root transformation and the unbalanced nature of the data. See supplementary table for predicted means and average standard error of difference. (b) No breastfeeding is exclusive formula feeding (feeding category B) & formula milk and solids (E)). Any breastfeeding is exclusive breastfeeding (feeding category A), mixed breast milk and formula milk – no solids (C), breastmilk and solids (D), mixed breastmilk and formula milk with solids (F))