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Table 2 Comparison of macronutrients, IgA, and TAC in human milk by breastfeeding duration

From: Macronutrient, immunoglobulin a and total antioxidant capacity profiles of human milk from 1 to 24 months: a cross-sectional study in Thailand

Breastfeeding
Duration
1–6 months (n = 43) a 6–12 months (n = 47) b 12–18 months (n = 50) c 18–24 months (n = 44) d Mean rank or
Mean diff. (SE)
p-value
Mean ± SD Median,
P25th–75th
Mean ± SD Median,
P25th–75th
Mean ± SD Median,
P25th–75th
Mean ± SD Median,
P25th–75th
Protein (g/dL) 2.56 ± 0.62 2.53,
2.21–2.92
2.39 ± 0.52 2.23,
2.05–2.69
2.40 ± 0.75 2.36,
1.87–2.61
2.84 ± 0.90 2.66,
2.29–3.13
50.49, 40.94 ab
52.22, 42.51 ac
40.23, 47.68 ad
50.09, 47.98 bc
37.34, 55.25 bd
38.87, 57.31 cd
< 0.001 1
0.08 2
0.08 2
0.17 2
0.71 2
0.001 2
< 0.0012
Fat (g/dL) 3.67 ± 1.30 3.79,
2.92–4.33
3.96 ± 1.36 3.53,
3.17–4.83
3.90 ± 1.32 3.85,
3.17–4.68
4.64 ± 1.61 4.61,
3.8–5.13
41.26, 49.38 ab
42.78, 50.63 ac
34.69, 53.10 ad
49.20, 48.81 bc
40.88, 51.47 bd
41.67, 54.13 cd
< 0.0011
0.14 2
0.16 2
< 0.001 2
0.94 2
0.06 2
0.03 2
Energy (kcal/dL) 84.86 ± 12.93 86.09,
77.42–91.55
87.77 ± 13.61 83.54,
79.94–96.55
87.91 ± 13.23 86.70,
79.94–95.01
94.64 ± 16.13 94.28,
86.24–99.48
41.26, 49.38 ab
42.77, 50.64 ac
34.67, 53.11 ad
49.20, 48.81 bc
40.88, 51.47 bd
41.67, 54.13 cd
< 0.0011
0.14 2
0.16 2
0.001 2
0.94 2
0.06 2
0.03 2
Carbohydrate (g/dL) 9.62 ± 1.04 9.43,
8.97–10.12
9.34 ± 0.59 9.27,
8.97–9.71
9.31 ± 0.84 9.35,
8.95–9.74
9.39 ± 0.81 9.41,
8.96–9.73
48.90, 42.39 ab
49.73, 44.65 ac
46.53, 41.52 ad
48.12, 49.83 bc
44.83, 47.25 bd
47.48, 47.52 cd
0.65 1
0.24 2
0.36 2
0.35 2
0.76 2
0.66 2
0.99 2
IgA (mg/dL) 110.82 ± 14.06 111.48,
103–117.63
129.59 ± 16.67 130.33,
115.03–140.5
124.29 ± 10.80 125.07,
116.35–131.37
127.16 ± 14.59 126.06,
115.73–139.57
− 18.77 (3.18) ab
− 13.47 (3.14) ac
− 16.34 (3.23) ad
5.31 (3.06) bc
2.43 (3.16) bd
− 2.87 (3.12) cd
< 0.0013
< 0.001 4
< 0.001 4
< 0.0014
0.08 4
0.44 4
0.36 4
TAC 1.61 ± 0.94 1.62,
1.2–2.04
1.61 ± 0.67 1.64,
1.89–2.05
1.84 ± 0.85 1.84,
1.38–2.38
1.60 ± 0.97 1.27,
0.69–2.09
0.03 (0.18) ab
− 0.23 (0.18) ac
0.21 (0.18) ad
− 0.23 (0.18) bc
0.18 (0.18) bd
0.44 (0.18) cd
0.09 3
0.85 4
0.19 4
0.25 4
0.19 4
0.33 4
0.01 4
  1. 1 Kruskal-Wallis test, 2 Mann-Whitney U test, 3 one-way ANOVA post hoc test, and 4 independent-sample T test were used for statistical calculations
  2. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) unit is mM, Trolox equivalent; SD standard deviation; P percentile; Mean diff. mean difference; SE standard error
  3. aHM of the mother who lactation duration between 1-6 months
  4. bHM of the mother who lactation duration between 6-12 months
  5. cHM of the mother who lactation duration between 12-18 months
  6. dHM of the mother who lactation duration between 18-24 months