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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Macronutrient, immunoglobulin a and total antioxidant capacity profiles of human milk from 1 to 24 months: a cross-sectional study in Thailand

  Breastfeeding
1–6 months
(n = 43)
Breastfeeding 6–12 months
(n = 47)
Breastfeeding 12–18 months
(n = 50)
Breastfeeding 18–24 months (n = 44) p-value
Maternal age, years (mean ± SD; median, P25th–75th) 1 32.6 ± 3.6,
32, 29–35
30.9 ± 4.6,
31, 28–35
32.2 ± 4.8,
32, 33–36
32.0 ± 4.5,
32, 29–37
0.28
Maternal BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD; median, P25th–75th) 2 23.2 ± 4.5,
22.5, 19.7–24.8
22.6 ± 4.8,
21.3, 19–25.1
22.3 ± 4.1,
21.6, 20.2–23.8
22.3 ± 3.3,
21.7, 19.8–25.1
0.78
Educational level (n, %)3
 Primary school 9 (20.9) 7 (14.9) 16 (32.0) 12 (27.3) 0.13
 Secondary school/certificate 0 (0) 3 (6.4) 4 (8.0) 4 (9.1)  
 Graduate degree 34 (79.1) 37 (78.7) 30 (60.0) 28 (63.6)  
First ANC visit, months (mean ± SD; median, P25th–75th) 2 2.0 ± 1.3,
2, 1–2
2.3 ± 1.6,
2, 1–3
2.3 ± 1.3,
2, 1–3
2.1 ± 1.2,
2, 1–3
0.78
Gestational age, days (mean ± SD; median, P25th–75th) 2 270.6 ± 6.4,
272, 266–273
271.3 ± 8.1,
272, 266–278
271.5 ± 6.4,
273, 266–275
272.3 ± 8.3,
273, 266–280
0.84
Birth order 3 (n, %)
 First born 27 (62.8) 31 (66.0) 33 (66.0) 25 (56.8) 0.71
 Second born 15 (34.9) 15 (31.9) 13 (26.0) 16 (36.4)  
 Third-fifth born 1 (2.3) 1 (2.1) 4 (8.0) 3 (6.8)  
Parental status, couple (n, %) 3 42 (97.7) 47 (100) 48 (96.0) 44 (100) 0.46
Breastfeeding frequency, times per day (mean ± SD; median, P25th–75th) 2 6.4 ± 5.6,
6, 1–10
6.0 ± 4.8,
5, 2–9
5.7 ± 3.8,
6, 3–8
6.1 ± 3.9,
5, 3.2–8
0.98
  1. 1One-way ANOVA, 2 Kruskal-Wallis test, and 3 Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical calculations, and a p-value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant
  2. BMI body mass index, ANC antenatal care, SD standard deviation, P percentile
  3. All participants were Thai