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Table 2 Infant feeding practices by maternal age, healthcare unit, type of birth and place of residence (n = 542)a

From: Barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding during the immediate and one month postpartum periods, among Mexican women: a mixed methods approach

  Healthcare unit Maternal age Type of birth Place of residence Total
Hospital data and infant feeding practices Public
(n = 476)
Private
(n = 67)
P value Adolescents
(n = 123)
Adults
(n = 420)
P value Vaginal
(n = 283)
Cesarean
(n = 260)
P value Urban
(n = 347)
Rural
(n = 196)
P value  
Birthweight (kg)
(mean ± SD)
3.17 ± 0.38 3.13 ± 0.32 0.43 3.10 ± 0.36 3.18 ± 0.38 0.04 3.14 ± 0.38 3.19 ± 0.37 0.12 3.17 ± 0.39 3.15 ± 0.39 0.69 3.16 ± 0.39
Gestational age (38–40 wks) 89.08 92.54 0.63 91.87 88.81 0.33 90.11 88.85 0.89 88.18 91.84 0.33 89.50
Knowledge of breastfeeding support groups (yes) 14.95 14.93 0.99 8.13 16.95 0.01 16.25 13.51 0.37 17.34 10.71 0.03 14.94
Attended breastfeeding support group (yes) 63.38 80.00 0.30 60.00 66.20 0.70 60.87 71.43 0.32 65.00 66.67 0.89 65.43
Health personnel advising on breastfeeding
Doctor 42.62 50.00 0.23 63.64 39.29 0.31 50.00 35.48 0.48 47.62 36.00 0.06 43.28
Nurse 39.34 16.67   36.36 37.50   27.78 48.39   26.19 56.00   37.31
Health promoter or assistant 6.56 0   0 7.14   8.33 3.23   7.14 4.00   5.97
Other (nutritionist, social worker, midwife, psychologist or a combination of them) 9.84 16.67   0 12.50   11.11 9.68   16.67 0   10.45
Doesn’t know 1.64 16.67   0 3.57   2.78 3.23   2.38 4.00   2.99
Timely initiation of breastfeeding
(<  60 min)
52.21 29.85 0.004 58.54 46.78 0.05 62.19 35.52 0.0001 41.91 62.76 0.0001 49.45
Rooming-in (Yes) 96.21 97.01 0.74 93.50 97.14 0.06 96.11 96.53 0.79 97.98 93.37 0.006 96.31
Baby was given formula in the hospital (Yes) 33.89 40.30 0.30 30.08 36.04 0.22 28.27 41.70 0.001 45.95 14.80 0.0001 34.69
Mother had breastfed her baby at least once at the time of discharge from the hospital (Yes) 96.08 84.75 0.0001 93.81 95.00 0.61 95.75 93.59 0.28 93.35 97.18 0.06 94.73
Breastfeeding since mother left the hospital, to one-month postpartum (Yes) 99.08 96.61 0.10 100.00 98.42 0.17 98.46 99.15 0.48 98.10 100.00 0.06 98.78
EBF at one month postpartum 48.03 21.05 < 0.01 24.78 50.93 < 0.01 46.48 43.10 0.45 36.98 58.76 0.0001 44.88
  (n = 166) (n = 36)   (n = 57) (n = 145)   (n = 91) (n = 109)   (n = 151) (n = 51)   (n = 201)
Infant formula feeding at one month postpartum 44.35 74.47 0.0001 66.67 42.99 0.0001 43.33 52.15 0.07 56.60 32.47 0.0001 47.73
Information on breastfeeding during pregnancy (Scale: 0–10) 6.18 ± 3.30 5.00 ± 3.39 0.006 5.02 ± 3.17 6.33 ± 3.32 0.0001 6.08 ± 3.24 5.98 ± 3.43 0.74 6.06 ± 3.26 5.99 ± 3.45 0.82 6.03 ± 3.33
Techniques for breastfeeding initiation 55.30 42.30 0.06 46.34 57.04 0.03 52.90 54.40 0.74 56.07 52.04 0.36 54.61
Techniques for breastfeeding maintenance 43.50 22.00 0.002 25.20 44.87 0.0001 42.40 39.30 0.47 40.46 40.31 0.97 40.41
Support to maintain breastfeeding at one month postpartum              
Health providers 17.92 21.74 0.66 16.67 18.92 0.05 16.13 20.39 0.27 9.80 21.38 0.38 18.37
Partner or spouse 11.56 4.35   0 14.19   10.75 10.68   13.73 9.66   10.71
Mothers /mothers in law of participants 48.55 43.48   58.33 44.59   54.84 41.75   50.98 46.90   47.96
Family/friends 20.81 30.43   25.00 20.95   18.28 25.24   23.53 21.38   21.94
Otherb 1.16 0   0 1.35   0 1.94   1.96 0.69   1.02
  1. aProportions or means ± SD are presented as indicated
  2. bOther, such as, support group on Facebook and a combination of health providers, family and friends
  3. Abbreviations: EBF Exclusive breastfeeding