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Table 4 Comparison of scores on intellectual function tests among the six groups of breastfeeding duration

From: Associations between breastfeeding and cognitive function in children from early childhood to school age: a prospective birth cohort study

Breastfeeding duration(months) 0 to ≤1 > 1 and ≤3 > 3 and ≤6 > 6 and ≤ 12 > 12 and ≤ 18 > 18 Crude Adjusted
        F df p F df p
K-ASQ at T1
 Communication 54.0 (8.5) 53.4 (9.2) 53.1 (9.4) 53.2 (9.1) 54.7 (8.0) 54.4 (8.8) 1.65 5, 1626 0.144 0.77 5, 1414 0.574
 Fine motor 54.1 (9.1) 54.4 (8.9) 55.2 (8.6) 55.0 (8.5) 55.0 (8.2) 54.3 (10.0) 0.67 5, 1626 0.644 0.47 5, 1414 0.799
 Gross motor 57.5 (6.3) 57.1 (6.9) 56.6 (7.5) 57.6 (5.7) 57.9 (5.4) 57.3 (7.2) 1.34 5, 1626 0.243 0.97 5, 1414 0.436
 Personal, social 54.6 (7.7) 53.9 (8.6) 53.4 (9.9) 55.2 (7.4) 55.1 (7.6) 55.3 (8.4) 2.20 5, 1626 0.052 0.90 5, 1414 0.477
 Problem solving 56.4 (6.5) 55.5 (8.0) 55.9 (7.9) 55.9 (7.3) 56.4 (7.0) 56.3 (7.7) 0.65 5, 1626 0.662 0.77 5, 1414 0.571
K-ASQ at T2
 Communication 47.9 (12.1) 47.6 (11.8) 49.6 (10.9) 50.2 (10.5) 50.5 (10.8) 50.0 (11.1) 3.72 5, 1698 0.002**, a 1.84 5, 1439 0.102
 Fine motor 47.7 (11.8) 46.4 (12.4) 48.6 (10.9) 47.7 (12.0) 48.7 (11.7) 47.5 (12.1) 1.38 5, 1698 0.228 1.67 5, 1439 0.140
 Gross motor 56.4 (8.8) 56.3 (9.5) 57.2 (7.0) 57.2 (7.7) 56.0 (9.6) 55.2 (10.6) 1.64 5, 1698 0.146 2.05 5, 1439 0.069
 Personal, social 51.4 (11.9) 52.7 (10.2) 52.1 (10.9) 52.5 (10.9) 53.1 (10.8) 52.3 (11.0) 0.84 5, 1698 0.518 0.84 5, 1439 0.518
 Problem solving 48.6 (13.4) 47.5 (13.1) 49.5 (11.9) 50.6 (10.7) 50.5 (11.1) 49.0 (12.2) 3.09 5, 1698 0.009** 3.83 5, 1439 0.002**, a
K-ASQ at T3
 Communication 52.0 (11.1) 51.8 (11.6) 52.9 (11.1) 53.5 (10.8) 53.7 (10.5) 52.4 (11.1) 1.63 5, 1746 0.148 1.48 5, 1466 0.192
 Fine motor 52.7 (9.4) 52.6 (10.2) 53.2 (8.6) 53.4 (8.2) 53.7 (8.3) 54.1 (9.1) 1.02 5, 1746 0.401 0.54 5, 1466 0.742
 Gross motor 57.6 (6.3) 56.8 (7.1) 57.5 (5.4) 57.4 (5.5) 57.1 (5.9) 57.3 (5.5) 0.62 5, 1746 0.685 1.04 5, 1466 0.390
 Personal, social 54.7 (9.3) 54.0 (9.7) 54.7 (8.4) 55.1 (8.4) 55.1 (8.4) 55.4 (9.1) 0.79 5, 1746 0.559 0.29 5, 1466 0.921
 Problem solving 53.5 (8.0) 53.2 (8.4) 55.0 (7.1) 54.1 (7.9) 54.7 (7.2) 54.1 (8.4) 1.89 5, 1746 0.093 1.07 5, 1466 0.375
REVT at T4
 Expressive 4.2 (3.1) 4.5 (3.1) 4.6 (3.1) 5.2 (3.3) 5.0 (3.3) 4.9 (3.2) 3.74 5, 1624 0.002**, a 2.44 5, 1373 0.033*
 Receptive 6.4 (3.6) 6.5 (3.6) 6.3 (3.5) 6.5 (3.6) 6.6 (3.6) 6.3 (3.5) 0.21 5, 1619 0.958 0.40 5, 1370 0.846
M-FIT at T9
 Vocabulary 55.4 (10.7) 55.4 (10.3) 57.6 (10.4) 56.8 (10.3) 57.3 (10.5) 56.1 (11.6) 1.75 51,392 0.120 0.63 5, 1176 0.678
 Language inference 56.3 (9.9) 56.5 (9.8) 56.9 (9.7) 58.3 (9.7) 57.9 (8.4) 56.7 (9.7) 1.93 51,392 0.086 1.21 5, 1176 0.303
 Schematization 52.6 (10.4) 54.5 (9.1) 54.8 (9.5) 55.1 (8.7) 54.6 (9.1) 53.4 (10.7) 2.22 51,392 0.050 1.42 5, 1176 0.215
 Calculation 53.0 (9.8) 53.8 (9.8) 53.3 (9.7) 55.1 (8.9) 54.3 (10.0) 52.2 (10.8) 2.43 51,392 0.033* 2.04 5, 1176 0.071
 Spatial perception 56.0 (10.3) 56.8 (10.1) 58.4 (10.2) 57.6 (10.8) 56.8 (10.4) 55.3 (11.7) 1.90 51,392 0.091 1.02 5, 1176 0.404
 Reasoning 56.1 (10.3) 55.2 (11.2) 56.4 (12.6) 56.6 (9.9) 56.1 (10.8) 54.1 (12.4) 1.31 51,392 0.257 0.75 5, 1176 0.589
  1. aItems that remained significant after multiple comparison adjustments with a false discovery rate threshold of 0.05 among the items with a p-value of < 0.05
  2. The adjusted model included children’s sex, age, gestational age, birth weight, parents’ education level, and household income as covariates
  3. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01