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Table 3 Odds ratio for delayed development at T1, T2, and T3 based on the duration of breastfeeding

From: Associations between breastfeeding and cognitive function in children from early childhood to school age: a prospective birth cohort study

Breastfeeding duration (months) 0 to ≤1 > 1 and ≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 6 > 6 and ≤ 12 > 12 and ≤ 18 > 18 Two groupsa
Crude (n)
 Denver II at T1 (n = 1429) 0.67 (0.32, 1.44) 1.07 (0.53, 2.15) 1.00 1.16 (0.62, 2.19) 0.89 (0.46, 1.73) 0.88 (0.39, 1.99) 0.86 (0.57, 1.30)
 Denver II at T2 (n = 1698) 0.85 (0.55, 1.30) 1.04 (0.68, 1.58) 1.00 0.88 (0.60, 1.30) 0.98 (0.66, 1.46) 0.91 (0.56, 1.48) 1.00 (0.79, 1.27)
 Denver II at T3 (n = 1731) 0.71 (0.39, 1.30) 0.98 (0.56, 1.72) 1.00 0.84 (0.49, 1.42) 0.76 (0.44, 1.32) 1.23 (0.66, 2.26) 0.95 (0.68, 1.32)
 K-ASQ at T1 (n = 1632) 1.01 (0.42, 2.45) 1.41 (0.62, 3.24) 1.00 0.88 (0.38, 2.01) 1.28 (0.57, 2.85) 1.14 (0.43, 3.04) 1.14 (0.72, 1.81)
 K-ASQ at T2 (n = 1704) 2.02 (0.98, 4.15) 2.21 (1.08, 4.50)* 1.00 1.54 (0.77, 3.09) 1.94 (0.97, 3.87) 2.12 (0.97, 4.64) 1.28 (0.92, 1.79)
 K-ASQ at T3 (n = 1752) 1.73 (0.88, 3.43) 1.51 (0.75, 3.01) 1.00 1.26 (0.65, 2.44) 0.99 (0.49, 1.99) 1.17 (0.52, 2.63) 1.45 (1.02, 2.07)*
 REVT-E at T4 (n = 1630) 1.62 (0.88, 2.99) 1.27 (0.67, 2.38) 1.00 0.95 (0.52, 1.73) 0.91 (0.49, 1.71) 0.48 (0.19, 1.19) 1.64 (1.17, 2.30)*
 REVT-R at T4 (n = 1625) 1.29 (0.53, 3.13) 1.67 (0.71, 3.92) 1.00 1.43 (0.63, 3.22) 1.25 (0.54, 2.91) 0.91 (0.31, 2.69) 1.21 (0.77, 1.88)
 M-FIT at T9 (n = 1752) 1.05 (0.59, 1.88) 0.85 (0.47, 1.54) 1.00 0.69 (0.39, 1.21) 0.87 (0.50, 1.52) 1.94 (1.07, 3.50)* 0.99 (0.71, 1.38)
Adjusted (n)
 Denver II at T1 (n = 1264) 0.58 (0.26, 1.30) 0.82 (0.39, 1.76) 1.00 1.10 (0.56, 2.15) 0.75 (0.37, 1.53) 0.66 (0.26, 1.65) 0.77 (0.49, 1.22)
 Denver II at T2 (n = 1455) 1.07 (0.66, 1.73) 1.24 (0.77, 1.98) 1.00 1.10 (0.71, 1.71) 1.31 (0.84, 2.05) 1.08 (0.63, 1.86) 1.01 (0.77, 1.31)
 Denver II at T3 (n = 1472) 0.54 (0.27, 1.09) 0.96 (0.52, 1.79) 1.00 0.86 (0.48, 1.54) 0.87 (0.48, 1.57) 1.27 (0.65, 2.49) 0.79 (0.54, 1.16)
 K-ASQ at T1 (n = 1436) 1.40 (0.46, 4.21) 2.09 (0.73, 6.00) 1.00 1.38 (0.48, 3.97) 1.97 (0.70, 5.53) 1.63 (0.48, 5.54) 1.14 (0.67, 1.93)
 K-ASQ at T2 (n = 1461) 1.95 (0.86, 4.42) 2.63 (1.20, 5.77)* 1.00 1.63 (0.75, 3.53) 2.03 (0.94, 4.38) 2.54 (1.09, 5.90)* 1.30 (0.90, 1.88)
 K-ASQ at T3 (n = 1491) 1.64 (0.76, 3.52) 1.61 (0.75, 3.45) 1.00 1.40 (0.67, 2.93) 1.20 (0.56, 2.56) 1.10 (0.44, 2.77) 1.33 (0.89, 1.99)
 REVT-E at T4 (n = 1397) 1.37 (0.70, 2.69) 0.98 (0.49, 1.98) 1.00 0.96 (0.50, 1.84) 0.93 (0.47, 1.82) 0.44 (0.17, 1.19) 1.33 (0.91, 1.93)
 REVT-R at T4 (n = 1394) 1.83 (0.63, 5.31) 2.43 (0.87, 6.79) 1.00 2.03 (0.74, 5.53) 1.91 (0.68, 5.33) 1.21 (0.34, 4.33) 1.26 (0.78, 2.02)
 M-FIT at T9 (n = 1491) 0.85 (0.45, 1.61) 0.78 (0.40, 1.50) 1.00 0.68 (0.37, 1.27) 0.81 (0.43, 1.50) 1.95 (1.02, 3.73)* 0.87 (0.60, 1.27)
  1. aOdds ratio for development delay in children breastfed for ≤3 months compared with children breastfed for more than 3 months
  2. Adjusted model included children’s sex, age, gestational age, birth weight, parental educational level, and household income level as covariates
  3. REVT-E: receptive and expressive vocabulary test (expressive); REVT-R; receptive and expressive vocabulary test (receptive);
  4. M-FIT: multifactorial intelligence test; * p < 0.05