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Table 1 Main characteristics of participants in the study

From: Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in Spain: a cohort study

Variable Category All participants
(N = 969)
Participants with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge
(N = 520)
Participants without exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge
(N = 449)
p value
Maternal age Mean ± sd 33.7 ± 5.2 33.7 ± 5.0 33.6 ± 3.9 0.76*
Maternal educational level Primary studies 215 (22.7) 91 (17.6) 124 (27.6) <  0.001**
Secondary studies 112 (11.8) 60 (11.6) 53 (11.8)  
Foundation degree 272 (28.7) 147 (28.4) 134 (29.8)  
University studies 350 (36.9) 220 (42.5) 138 (30.7)  
Maternal occupation Working 660 (69.6) 368 (71.0) 303 (67.5) 0.64**
Unemployed 163 (17.2) 84 (16.2) 85 (18.9)  
Inactive 116 (12.2) 61 (11.8) 56 (12.5)  
Student 10 (1.1) 5 (1.0) 5 (1.1)  
Smoking in pregnancy No 830 (87.5) 467 (90.2) 378 (84.2) 0.005**
Yes 119 (12.5) 51 (9.8) 71 (15.8)  
Pregnancy duration ≥ 37 weeks 897 (94.5) 501 (96.7) 408 (90.9) 0.001**
34–36 weeks 36 (3.8) 11 (2.1) 28 (6.2)  
<  34 weeks 16 (1.7) 6 (1.2) 13 (2.9)  
Type of delivery Vaginal (non-instrumental) 653 (67.4) 391 (75.2) 262 (58.4) <  0.001**
Instrumental 80 (8.3) 43 (8.3) 37 (12.9)  
Cesarean rate 236 (24.4) 86 (16.5) 150 (33.4)  
Newborn gender Male 490 (50.6) 255 (49.0) 235 (52.3) 0.31**
Female 479 (49.4) 265 (51.0) 214 (47.7)  
Twin pregnancy No 929 (95.9) 516 (99.2) 413 (92.0) <  0.001**
Yes 40 (4.1) 4 (0.8) 36 (8.0)  
Newborn weight <  2500 83 (8.6) 23 (4.4) 60 (13.4) <  0.001**
2500–4000 g 808 (93.4) 463 (89.0) 345 (76.8)  
>  4000 g 78 (8.1) 34 (6.5) 44 (9.8)  
Breastfeeding duration Mean ± sd 5.9 ± 5.2 7.8 ± 4.6 3.9 ± 4.9 <  0.001*
Yes 520 (53.7) 520 (100.0)  
Attendance to child care No 763 (78.7) 398 (76.5) 365 (81.3) 0.09**
Yes 132 (13.6) 74 (14.2) 58 (12.9)  
Unknown 74 (7.6) 48 (9.2) 26 (5.8)  
  1. *ANOVA. **Chi-squared test