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Table 4 Factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding, N = 1644

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among women with children aged < 24 months in Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania: a community-based cross-sectional study

Variable n EIBF
n (%)
CPR (95% CI) P-value APR (95% CI) P-value
District
 Rombo 372 273 (73.4) 1   1  
 Moshi urban 170 124 (72.9) 0.99 (0.89, 1.11) 0.914 0.99 (0.89, 1.10) 0.848
 Same 355 226 (63.7) 0.87 (0.79, 0.96) 0.005 0.84 (0.76, 0.93) 0.001
 Mwanga 179 120 (67.0) 0.91 (0.81, 1.03) 0.138 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 0.203
 Hai 296 190 (64.2) 0.87 (0.79, 0.97) 0.012 0.89 (0.80, 0.98) 0.024
 Siha 272 217 (79.8) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) 0.056 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 0.156
Residence
 Urban 365 255 (69.9) 1    
 Rural 1279 895 (70.0) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) 0.967   
Maternal age (years)
 15–24 609 416 (68.3) 1    
 25–34 734 513 (69.9) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 0.533   
 35–49 298 218 (73.2) 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 0.125   
Child age (months)
 0–11 871 607 (69.7) 1    
 12–23 773 543 (70.3) 1.01 (0.94, 1.07) 0.819   
Child sex
 Female 814 564 (69.3) 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) 0.572   
 Male 829 585 (70.6) 1    
Marital status
 Married 1213 866 (71.4) 1    
 Single 357 239 (67.0) 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) 0.12   
 Divorced/widow 72 43 (59.7) 0.83 (0.69, 1.01) 0.07   
Maternal education
 No formal 56 40 (71.4) 1.09 (0.92, 1.30) 0.324 1.00 (0.82, 1.24) 0.933
 Primary 1020 739 (72.5) 1.11 (1.03, 1.19) 0.005 1.09 (1.003, 1.18) 0.043
 Secondary & above 566 370 (65.4) 1   1  
Employed with salary
 No 1418 1000 (70.6) 1    
 Yes 224 148 (66.1) 0.93 (0.85, 1.03) 0.193   
Partner education
 No formal 40 29 (72.5) 1.08 (0.89, 1.32) 0.441 1.04 (0.84, 1.28) 0.743
Primary 849 614 (72.3) 1.08 (1.004, 1.16) 0.038 1.03 (0.60, 1.11) 0.399
 Secondary & above 552 370 (67.0) 1   1  
Parity
 1 565 364 (64.4) 1   1  
 2 428 326 (76.2) 1.18 (1.09, 1.28) < 0.001 1.12 (1.02, 1.21) 0.011
 ≥ 3 650 459 (70.6) 1.10 (1.01, 1.19) 0.023 1.03 (0.94, 1.12) 0.523
Frequency of ANC care
 < 4 376 255 (67.8) 1    
 ≥ 4 1254 885 (70.6) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) 0.319   
BF counseling at ANC
 No 573 392 (68.4) 1    
 Yes 1054 742 (70.5) 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 0.388   
Place of birth
 Home/others 209 137 (65.6) 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.174   
 Health facility 1415 999 (70.5) 1    
Child birthweight (Kg)
 < 2.5 113 72 (63.7) 1    
 ≥ 2.5 1498 1059 (70.7) 1.11 (0.96, 1.28) 0.154   
BF support immediately after delivery by provider
 No 611 438 (71.7) 1    
 Yes 244 166 (68.0) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 0.303   
Prelacteal feeding
 No 1457 1088 (74.7) 1   1  
 Yes 176 54 (30.7) 0.41 (0.33, 0.51) < 0.001 0.42 (0.34, 0.53) < 0.001
Child given colostrum
 No 68 40 (58.8) 1.20 (0.98, 1.46) 0.081   
 Yes 1574 1108 (70.4) 1    
  1. EIBF Early Initiation of breastfeeding, BF Breastfeeding, HF Health Facility, CPR Crude Prevalence ratio, APR Adjusted Prevalence Ratio