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Table 3 Association of sociodemographic factors and EBF practices at 4–8 weeks

From: Psychosocial barriers and enablers of exclusive breastfeeding: lived experiences of mothers in low-income townships, North West Province, South Africa

Variable EBFa (n)%# Non-EBF (n)% p value*
Maternal age < 30 years 8 (61.5) 31 (52.5) 0.556
Maternal age ≥ 30 years 5 (38.5) 28 (47.5)  
Parity ≤2 18 (32.0) 41 (38.5) 0.985
Parity ≥3 36 (68.0) 64 (61.5)  
Education ≤ grade 12 29 (54.7) 54 (51.0) 0.383
Education > grade 12 23 (47.3) 52 (49.0)  
In a relationship
Not in a relationship
46 (86.8)
7 (13.2)
94 (90.4)
11 (9.6)
0.724
Employed 14 (26.4) 28 (26.0) 0.951
Unemployed 40 (73.6) 77 (74.0)  
Household income < R3000 38 (69.8) 72 (69.2) 0.441
Household income ≥ R3000 16 (30.2) 33 (30.8)  
Receiving mHealth messages 32 (58.9) 57 (54.8) 0.660
Not receiving mHealth messages 23 (41.5) 47 (45.2)  
EPDS < 10 8 (61.5) 34 (61.8) 0.487
EPDS ≥10 5 (38.5) 21 (38.2)  
BSES < 55: 10 (0.07) 32 (23.0) 0.971
BSES ≥55: 17 (0.12) 80 (57.5)  
  1. aEBF = Exclusive Breastfeeding defined as Breastmilk + ORS + prescribed meds only (NDOH, 2013, 2018)
  2. Non-EBF = Not exclusively breastfeeding and includes breastmilk with non-prescribed medicines and/or water, and/or formula, and/or food
  3. EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score
  4. BSES Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Score
  5. *No significant differences were found for any variables between EBF = Exclusive Breastfeeding; and non-EBF. #Numbers may vary due to missing data for some variables