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Table 2 Sucking dynamics at 4, 10, 19, and 24 weeks in an infant with Down syndrome

From: Altered sucking dynamics in a breastfed infant with Down syndrome: a case report

Infant age 4 weeks 4 weeks 10 weeks 14 weeks 19 weeks 24 weeks Reference range
Breast left right (shield) right left right left average
Peak vacuum (mmHg) − 59 ± 33.5 − 43 ± 29 −38.5 ± 20 −54 ± 35 −58 ± 40 − 133 ± 43 − 145 ± 58 [13]
Baseline vacuum (mmHg) −6 ± 8 −2 ± 5 0 ± 4 −6.5 ± 11.5 −12 ± 18 −31 ± 30 − 64 ± 45 [13]
NS burst duration (s) 3.3 (0.4, 8) 2.3 (1, 10) 3.8 (0.6, 19) 3.7 (0.5, 17.5) 4.5 (0.7, 20) 6.0 (0.4, 75) 8.9 (4.5, 18.3) [23]
NNS burst duration (s) 2.0 (0.5, 2.7) 2.7 (2, 8) 1.6 (0.6, 7.5) 2.5 (0.5, 10.5) 5.0, (1, 10.5) 2.8 (0.6, 29.5) 4.5 (3.1, 7.1) [23]
NP duration (s) 2.3 (0.6, 35) 3.0 (0.5, 41.2) 1.4 (0.3, 19) 1.0 (0.6, 76.5) 0.9 (0.5, 9.1) 0.7 (0.4, 99.6) 2.9 (1.8, 5.5) [13]
NNP duration (s) 3.5 (1.7, 13) 16 (2.6, 48.7) 2 (0.3, 37.5) 2 (0.7, 128.2) 18 (0.9, 67) 2.3 (0.6, 19.5) 2.7 (1.9, 4.0) [13]
Milk intake (mL) 22 4 42 42 48 125 76 (30–135) [17]
NS rate (sucks/min) 101 ± 22 110 ± 31 87 ± 17 96 ± 27.5 97 ± 22.5 105 ± 22.7 74 ± 17.1 [23]
NNS rate (sucks/min) 85.4 ± 19 112.3 ± 22 93 ± 28.5 105.4 ± 20.3 91.4 ± 13 118 ± 33.2 88.9 ± 23.9 [23]
Feeding efficiency (mL/min) 4.7 1.5 6 6 8 11.5 8.9 ± 4.2 [24]
  1. Sucking dynamics reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (min, max) for peak and baseline vacuums, milk intake, nutritive (NS) and non-nutritive suck (NNS) rate and burst duration, nutritive (NP) and non-nutritive pause (NNP) duration and feeding efficiency at monitored breastfeeds for an infant with Down syndrome at 1–6 months of age