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Table 4 Breastfeeding complications according to the BMI

From: Relationship between maternal body mass index with the onset of breastfeeding and its associated problems: an online survey

VariableBMI 
 Normoweight
n (%)
Overweight
n (%)
Obesity type I
n (%)
Obesity type II
n (%)
Obesity type III
n (%)
Total values
n (%)
Skin-to-skin contact
 No300 (18.7)562 (20.6)304 (26.4)96 (32.8)35 (36.5)1297(22.1)
 Yes1307 (81.3)2160 (79.4)849 (73.6)197 (67.2)61 (63.5)4574 (77.9)
 OR CI 951 (ref.)0.88 (0.76,1.03)0.64 (0.54, 0.77)0.47 (0.36, 0.62)0.40 (0.26, 0.62) 
aAOR CI 95%1 (ref.)0.97 (0.82, 1.16)0.79 (0.65, 0.97)0.68 (0.50, 0.93)0.51 (0.32, 0.83) 
aAOR CI 95% Total0.96 (0.95, 0.98)
Start of breastfeeding in the first hour
 No358 (22.3)661 (24.3)339 (29.4)106 (36.2)35 (36.5)1499 (25.5)
 Yes1249 (77.7)2061 (75.7)814 (70.6)187 (63.8)61 (63.5)4372 (74.5)
 OR CI 95%1 (ref.)0.89 (0.77, 1.04)0.69 (0.58, 0.82)0.51 (0.39, 0.66)0.50 (0.32, 0.77) 
bAOR CI 95%1 (ref.)0.93 (0.79, 1.10)0.80 (0.66, 0.97)0.66 (0.49, 0.90)0.58 (0.36, 0.94) 
bAOR CI 95% Total0.97 (0.95, 0.98)
Exclusive breastfeeding at discharge
 No286 (17.8)530 (19.5)272 (23.6)74 (25.3)28 (29.2)1190 (20.3)
 Yes1321 (82.2)2192 (80.5)881 (76.4)219 (74.7)68 (70.8)4681 (79.7)
 OR CI 95%1 (ref.)0.90 (0.76, 1.05)0.70 (0.58, 0.85)0.64 (0.48, 0.86)0.53 (0.33, 0.83) 
bAOR CI 95%1 (ref.)0.91 (0.77, 1.08)0.79 (0.64, 0.97)0.78 (0.57, 1.07)0.57 (0.35, 0.94) 
bAOR CI 95% Total0.96 (0.95–0.98)
  1. For the multivariate analysis, the ENTER method for binary logistic regression was used
  2. All variables adjusted by: maternal age, nulliparity, twin pregnancy, previous caesarean, smoking habit, economic income, level of education, nationality, maternity training, pregnancy composite morbidity, delivery composite morbidity, postpartum composite morbidity and epidural analgesia
  3. a Adjusted by: + prematurity
  4. bAdjusted by: + newborn admission + prematurity + breastfeeding previous children
  5. Pregnancy composite morbidity: including preeclampsia during pregnancy, diet-controlled gestational diabetes, insulin-controlled gestational diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, anaemia, intrahepatic cholestasis, risk of preterm birth, deep vein thrombosis
  6. Delivery composite morbidity: including altered foetal heart rate (FHR) during delivery, stained amniotic fluid (AF), vaginal bleeding, non-progression of delivery, cephalopelvic disproportion, intrapartum fever (body temperature higher than 38 °C), intrapartum preeclampsia, induced delivery, end of delivery by caesarean, and severe tearing (type III-IV)
  7. Postpartum composite morbidity: including maternal postpartum surgery related to the delivery, maternal admission to intensive care unit, and maternal re-admission