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Table 4 Adjusted and unadjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for factors associated with prelacteal feeding in Pakistan, (PDHS, 2012–2013)

From: Prelacteal feeding practices in Pakistan: a mixed-methods study

  Likelihood of prelacteal feeding
Variables ORa P - value 95% CI AOR P - value 95% CI
Education of mother
 No education 1.53 0.013 1.09, 2.15 1.28 0.369 0.78, 1.91
 Primary 2.65 <  0.001 1.71, 4.09 2.28 0.002 1.35, 3.85
 Middle 1.93 0.010 1.93, 1.17 1.88 0.041 1.02, 3.47
 Secondary 1.69 0.021 1.08, 2.64 1.80 0.034 1.04, 3.09
 Higher 1    1   
Wealth index
 Poorest 0.80 0.223 0.57, 1.13    
 Poorer 0.97 0.856 0.68, 1.36    
 Middle 1.41 0.058 0.98, 2.01    
 Rich 1.80 0.002 1.24, 2.60    
 Richest 1      
Sex of household
 Male 0.62 0.50 0.38, 0.99    
 Female 1      
Region
 Punjab 54.07 <  0.001 28.8, 101.3 24.92 <  0.001 12.6, 49.1
 Sindh 10.84 <  0.001 5.95, 19.74 7.03 <  0.001 3.65, 13.5
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 22.70 <  0.001 12.31, 42.0 16.21 <  0.001 8.30, 31.6
 Baluchistan 13.78 <  0.001 7.39, 25.68 12.20 <  0.001 6.14, 24.3
 Islamabad 10.86 <  0.001 5.23, 52.55 9.60 <  0.001 4.31, 21.4
 Gilgit-Baltistan 1    1   
Antenatal care
 None 0.83 0.040 0.62, 1.10    
 1–3 visits 1.20 0.250 0.93, 1.56    
  ≥ 4 visits 1      
Place of delivery
 At home 0.93 0.604 0.72, 1.20 0.997 0.89 0.69, 1.37
 Public health facility 0.49 <  0.001 0.36, 0.66 0.462 0.02 0.43, 0.95
 Private health facility 1      
Birth by Cesarean section
 No 0.62 0.007 0.43, 0.87    
 Yes 1      
When child put to breast
 Within one hour 0.02 <  0.001 0.14, 0.44 0.03 <  0.001 0.01, 0.61
 2–24 h 0.05 <  0.001 0.32, 0.98 0.07 <  0.001 0.43, 0.95
 After one day 1    1   
Birth order
 First born child 1.40 0.013 1.07, 1.84    
 Subsequent child 1      
  1. aBinary logistic regression
  2. Education of mothers, region, place of delivery, and when child put to breast