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Table 2 Characteristic of dyads including in analysis of prelacteal feeding in Pakistan, PDHS 2012–13 (n = 1361)

From: Prelacteal feeding practices in Pakistan: a mixed-methods study

Variables All
(n = 1361)
% (n)
Prelacteal feeding P - value
Yes
% (n)
No
% (n)
Total Sample 64.7 (881) 35.3 (480)  
Maternal education
 No education 52.5 (715) 63.3 (453) 36.7 (262) <  0.001
 Primary 15.4 (210) 75.1 (158) 24.9 (52)
 Middle 8.2 (112) 68.8 (77) 31.2 (35)
 Secondary 11.4 (155) 65.8 (102) 34.2 (53)
 Higher 12.6 (171) 53.2 (91) 46.8 (80)
Maternal age
 15–24 33.1 (450) 66.5 (299) 33.5 (151) 0.27
 25–34 52.8 (719) 64.9 (467) 35.1 (252)
 34 and above 14.1 (192) 59.9 (115) 40.1 (77)
Wealth index
 Poorest 20.1 (274) 56.8 (156) 43.2 (118) <  0.001
 Poorer 20.4 (278) 61.2 (170) 38.8 (108)
 Middle 19.8 (269) 69.6 (187) 30.4 (82)
 Rich 19.6 (267) 74.5 (199) 25.5 (68)
 Richest 20.1 (274) 61.9 (170) 38.1 (104)
Sex of household head
 Male 93.2 (1268) 64.0 (812) 36.0 (456) 0.030
 Female 6.8 (93) 74.0 (69) 26.0 (24)
Place of residence
 Urban 43.6 (593) 62.3 (370) 37.7 (223) 0.055
 Rural 56.4 (768) 66.6 (511) 33.4 (257)
Region
 Punjab 28.0 (381) 86.6 (330) 13.4 (51) <  0.001
 Sindh 22.1 (301) 56.5 (170) 43.5 (131)
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 20.2 (275) 73.1 (201) 26.9 (74)
 Baluchistan 15.0 (204) 62.3 (127) 37.7 (77)
 Islamabad 5.1 (69) 56.5 (39) 43.5 (30)
 Gilgit-Baltistan 9.6 (131) 10.7 (14) 89.3 (117)
Antenatal care
 No 23.0 (313) 59.7 (187) 40.3 (126) 0.04
 1–3 visits 37.6 (512) 68.4 (350) 31.6 (162)
  ≥ 4 visits 39.4 (536) 64.1 (344) 35.9 (192)
Place of delivery
 At home 45.3 (617) 67.2 (415) 32.8 (202) <  0.001
 Public health facility 19.5 (265) 51.9 (137) 48.1 (128)
 Private 35.2 (479) 68.7 (329) 31.3 (150)
Birth by cesarean section
 No 86.2 (1173) 63.4 (743) 36.6 (430) 0.004
 Yes 13.8 (188) 73.7 (138) 26.3 (50)
When child put to breast after delivery
 Within one hour 23.0 (313) 38.7 (121) 61.3 (192) <  0.001
 2–24 h 49.4 (672) 59.2 (398) 40.8 (274)
 After one day 27.6 (376) 96.3 (362) 3.7 (14)
Sex of child
 Male 50.7 (690) 63.6 (439) 36.4 (251) 0.21
 Female 49.3 (671) 65.9 (442) 34.1 (229)
Birth order
 First born child 23.7 (323) 70.5 (228) 29.5 (95) 0.008
 Subsequent child 76.3 (1038) 62.9 (653) 37.1 (385)