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Table 1 Characteristics of the mothers of preterm and term newborns

From: Circadian changes in the composition of human milk macronutrients depending on pregnancy duration: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsTerm (GA ≥37 weeks),
n = 18
Preterm (GA < 37 weeks), n = 27tdfp value
Gestational age (weeks), \( \overline{x}\pm s \)
Range (weeks)
38.7 ± 1.0
37–40
30.2 ± 2.5
24–36
−15.6137.04< 0.001
Birth weight (g), \( \overline{x}\pm s \)
Range (g)
3265 ± 589
1590–3960
1477 ± 405
845–2380
−12.0943< 0.001
Gender (male / female), n (%)11/7 (61.1/38.9)18/9 (66.7/33.3)0.1510.703
Delivery mode (VD / CS), n (%)15/3 (83.3/16.7)16/11 (59.3/40.7)2.9210.087
Number of deliveries, \( \overline{x}\pm s \)
Range, n
1.6 ± 0.7
1–3
1.7 ± 0.9
1–5
0.22430.829
Maternal age (y), \( \overline{x}\pm s \)
Range (y)
30.9 ± 6.2
19–40
32.9 ± 4.3
24–43
1.28430.209
Ethnicity (Lithuanian, othera), n (%)14/4 (77.8/22.2)23/4 (85.2/14.8)0.2510.694
  1. \( \overline{x} \) ± s mean value ± standard deviation, VD vaginal delivery, CS caesarean section, GA gestational age; t test value, df degrees of freedom
  2. aother ethnicities: Russians, Poles, Ukrainians