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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample and prevalence of early feeding practices

From: Early feeding practices and associated factors in Sudan: a cross-sectional analysis from multiple Indicator cluster survey

  n (%) Early breastfeeding** Avoiding prelacteal feeding*** Optimal early feeding
Overall 5622 (100.0) 68.7 (66.7,70.7) 71.7 (69.6,73.8) 51.0 (48.9,53.1)
 Community-level variables
Area of residence
   Urban 1488 (26.5) 71.0 (67.6,74.2) 69.9 (66.5,73.1) 50.3 (46.8,53.7)
   Rural 4134 (73.5) 67.9 (65.4,70.3) 72.4 (69.6,75.0) 51.3 (48.6,53.9)
Region of residence
   Khartoum 684 (12.2) 73.7 (68.2,78.5) 64.1 (58.5,69.4) 47.9 (41.7,54.1)
   Northern 244 (4.3) 59.9 (54.4,65.2) 56.2 (49.7,62.5) 33.4 (28.1,39.3)
   Eastern 598 (10.6) 83.2 (79.1,86.7) 77.7 (73.9,81.1) 65.2 (60.6,69.4)
   Central 1638 (29.1) 69.9 (65.8,73.7) 65.8 (60.7,70.5) 47.4 (43.0,52.0)
   Kordofan 888 (15.8) 64.5 (58.3,70.3) 73.4 (68.6,77.7) 51.0 (45.5,56.5)
   Darfur 1570 (27.9) 63.5 (60.1,66.9) 80.5 (76.9,83.6) 53.4 (50.1,56.7)
 Household-level variables
Wealth index quintile
   Poorest 1251 (22.2) 62.1 (57.3,66.7) 76.1 (71.6,80.0) 51.3 (46.7,55.8)
   Second 1232 (21.9) 69.8 (66.5,73.0) 77.7 (74.6,80.6) 55.9 (52.5,59.3)
   Middle 1192 (21.2) 73.1 (69.5,76.5) 69.6 (65.9,73.2) 52.6 (48.7,56.5)
   Fourth 1096 (19.5) 68.2 (64.3,71.9) 65.7 (59.8,71.1) 45.4 (40.1,50.8)
   Richest 851 (15.1) 71.3 (66.5,75.6) 67.5 (62.3,72.2) 48.4 (43.5,53.3)
 Parental variables
Maternal age in years
   15–24 1515 (26.9) 66.3 (63.2,69.2) 69.4 (65.7,72.9) 47.1 (43.4,50.9)
   25–34 2802 (49.8) 70.5 (67.8,73.0) 72.7 (70.2,75.0) 52.8 (50.2,55.4)
   35+ 1305 (23.2) 67.8 (64.5,70.9) 72.4 (68.4,76.1) 51.7 (48.0,55.3)
Maternal age at marriage in years
    < 15 918 (16.3) 64.7 (60.4,68.8) 68.9 (64.2,73.3) 46.3 (42.0,50.6)
   15–24 4189 (74.5) 69.4 (67.0,71.7) 72.3 (69.9,74.6) 52 (49.5,54.4)
   25+ 514 (9.2) 70.0 (64.3,75.1) 72.1 (65.9,77.6) 51.8 (46.2,57.3)
Mother’s education
   None 2247 (40.0) 68.0 (65.0,70.8) 72.3 (69.4,75.1) 51.2 (48.3,54.1)
   Primary 2022 (36.0) 67.5 (63.7,71.0) 70.6 (66.7,74.2) 49.7 (46.1,53.4)
   Secondary 942 (16.8) 73.1 (69.1,76.8) 74.6 (70.5,78.4) 54.7 (50.3,59.0)
   Higher 410 (7.3) 68.8 (61.4,75.3) 67.5 (59.9,74.2) 47.3 (40.3,54.5)
Father’s education
   None 1880 (33.9) 68.2 (64.9,71.3) 71.7 (68.4,74.8) 51.2 (47.7,54.7)
   Primary 1642 (29.6) 69.8 (66.4,73.0) 71.3 (67.3,75.0) 52.4 (48.6,56.2)
   Secondary 968 (17.5) 72.9 (69.1,76.4) 71.3 (67.6,74.7) 53.8 (49.4,58.2)
   Higher 320 (5.8) 75.8 (69.8,80.9) 68.2 (61.0,74.7) 53.7 (46.9,60.3)
   Father not in household 692 (12.5) 63.0 (57.7,68.0) 72.7 (67.6,77.3) 44.7 (39.8,49.7)
   Missing/dk 38 (0.7)    
Planned pregnancy
   No 1087 (19.3) 67.3 (62.6,71.7) 64.6 (60.3,68.6) 46.2 (42.3,50.1)
   Yes 4491 (79.9) 69.6 (67.4,71.7) 73.2 (70.7,75.6) 52.6 (50.1,55.0)
   Missing 44 (0.8)    
Number of antenatal care visits
   0 1080 (19.2) 67.3 (62.3,71.8) 73.1 (68.1,77.6) 53.3 (48.7,57.8)
   1–3 1596 (28.4) 71.0 (67.6,74.1) 71.4 (68.5,74.2) 51.4 (47.9,54.9)
   4+ 2852 (50.7) 68.7 (66.2,71.0) 70.9 (67.8,73.8) 50.3 (47.5,53.1)
   Missing 94 (1.7)    
Place of birth
   Home 4006 (71.3) 71.5 (69.1,73.8) 73.7 (71.5,75.7) 54.8 (52.5,57.1)
   Health facility 1559 (27.7) 63.5 (60.2,66.6) 65.8 (61.6,69.7) 42.5 (38.9,46.1)
   Missing 57 (1.0)    
Birth assisted by skilled attendant
   No 1252 (22.3) 63.6 (59.4,67.5) 72.3 (68.1,76.1) 48.3 (44.3,52.3)
   Yes 4370 (77.7) 70.2 (68.0,72.3) 71.6 (69.1,73.9) 51.8 (49.3,54.2)
Birth by caesarean section
   No 5110 (90.9) 71.3 (69.2,73.2) 73.1 (70.9,75.1) 53.4 (51.2,55.6)
   Yes 511 (9.1) 43.3 (37.5,49.3) 58.4 (52.4,64.2) 26.8 (21.6,32.7)
 Child variables
Child sex
   Male 2809 (50.0) 68.4 (65.9,70.9) 70.3 (67.6,72.8) 49.8 (46.9,52.6)
   Female 2734 (48.6) 70.1 (67.8,72.4) 72.8 (70.2,75.2) 53.0 (50.6,55.4)
   Missing 79 (1.4)    
Birth order
   1st 1984 (35.3) 66.2 (63.0,69.2) 69.8 (66.9,72.6) 47.4 (44.1,50.7)
   2nd 2970 (52.8) 71.2 (68.6,73.6) 72.5 (69.9,74.9) 53.5 (50.8,56.1)
   3rd or higher 588 (10.5) 70.4 (65.0,75.2) 72.3 (67.1,76.8) 54.3 (49.0,59.5)
   Missing 79 (1.4)    
Perceived size at birth
   Larger than average 727 (12.9) 65.8 (61.4,69.9) 72.8 (67.6,77.5) 48.9 (43.7,54.2)
   Average 2893 (51.5) 70.9 (68.4,73.3) 72.2 (69.7,74.6) 52.7 (50.0,55.4)
   Smaller than average 1903 (33.9) 68.2 (64.6,71.6) 69.9 (66.7,72.9) 50.3 (46.7,53.8)
   DK or missing 99 (1.8)    
  1. ** 257 unweighted missing cases (4.38%) were assumed not breastfed with one hour
  2. *** 249 unweighted missing cases (4.52%) were assumed not given any prelacteal feed