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Table 1 Main data of participants at Fin-HIT baseline and comparison according to type of feeding

From: Breastfeeding may have a long-term effect on oral microbiota: results from the Fin-HIT cohort

  All n = 423 No infant formula n = 175 Infant formula n = 248 P - value
Continuous variables Mean (SD)  
Adolescent’s age (y) 11.7 (0.3) 11.7 (0.3) 11.7 (0.3) 0.074
Parent’s age (y) 44.0 (5.7) 44.3 (5.4) 43.8 (5.8) 0.389
Adolescent’s body mass index (kg/m2) a 18.0 (2.9) 17.7 (2.8) 18.2 (2.9) 0.077
Alpha diversity b
 Shannon Index 2.9 (0.3) 2.9 (0.3) 2.9 (0.3) 0.877
 Inverse Simpson 10.1 (3.1) 10.1 (3.2) 10.1 (2.3) 0.949
Categorical variables Frequency (%)  
Adolescent’s gender
 Male 204 (48.2) 82 (46.9) 122 (49.2) 0.636
 Female 219 (51.8) 93 (53.1) 126 (50.8)
Type of delivery c
 Vaginal 325 (81.1) 144 (88.3) 181 (76.1) 0.002
 C-section 76 (18.9) 19 (11.7) 57 (23.9)
Parent’s language
 Finnish 382 (90.3) 156 (89.1) 226 (91.1) 0.638
 Swedish 36 (8.5) 16 (9.2) 20 (8.1)
 Other 5 (1.2) 3 (1.7) 2 (0.8)
Parent’s education d
 High school/ technical level 165 (40.4) 72 (43.4) 93 (38.4) 0.318
 University degree 243 (59.6) 94 (56.6) 149 (61.6)
  1. an = 413 due to missing data
  2. b Adjusted for adolescent’s gender, age, and body mass index, type of delivery, parent’s education, and sequence reads
  3. cn = 401 due to missing data
  4. dn = 408 due to missing data