Skip to main content

Table 1 Univariable analysis of factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, TDHS 2015/2016

From: Exclusive breastfeeding patterns in Tanzania: Do individual, household, or community factors matter?

CharacteristicN (%)UOR95% CI
Exclusive breastfeeding
 No407(40.8)  
 Yes591(59.2)  
Age of the mother
 15–19 years179(17.9)0.69*[0.49,0.97]
 20–29 years497(49.8)1Reference
 30–39 years271(27.2)0.73[0.73,1.34]
 40–49 years51(5.1)0.75[0.42,1.34]
Marital status
 Not married173(17.3)0.95[0.68,1.33]
 Married826(82.7)1Reference
Occupation of the mother
 Casual/unskilled378(37.9)0.73*[0.55,0.95]
 Agriculture536(53.7)1Reference
 Small scale business38(3.8)0.52†[0.27,1.01]
 Skilled/professional47(4.7)0.99[0.53,1.84]
Respondent worked past 12 months
 No239(23.9)0.83[0.61,1.14]
 In the past year85(8.5)1.94*[1.17,3.20]
 Currently working480(48.0)1Reference
 Have a job but on leave last seven days195(19.5)2.06***[1.43,2.95]
Educational years of the mother
 No education192(19.2)0.85[0.61,1.18]
 1–7 years647(64.8)1Reference
 8–11 years136(13.7)1.26[0.86,1.85]
 12+ years24(2.4)0.51[0.22,1.16]
Birth order of the child
 1st born276(27.6)0.88[0.64,1.210]
 2nd – 3rd born366(36.7)1Reference
 4th – 6th born230(23.0)1.38†[0.98,1.94]
 7th born and above127(12.7)0.81[0.54,1.21]
Season of Birth
 Long rain season138(13.8)0.70†[0.48,1.02]
 Dry Season575(57.6)1Reference
 Short rain season285(28.6)3.72***[2.66,5.19]
Sex of the child
 Male519(51.9)1Reference
 Female480(48.1)1.02[0.79,1.31]
Size of the child at birth
 Very large54(5.4)0.66[0.38,1.16]
 Larger than average161(16.1)0.65*[0.46,0.92]
 Average673(67.4)1Reference
 Smaller than average70(7.0)0.75[0.46,1.23]
 Very small34(3.4)0.76[0.38,1.54]
 Don’t know6(0.6)1.49[0.27,8.23]
The current age of the child
  < 2 months560(56.1)1Reference
 2–3 months158(15.8)0.34***[0.23,0.49]
 4–5 months281(28.1)0.11***[0.08,0.15]
Household wealth index
 Poorest265(26.6)1Reference
 Poorer205(20.6)1.19[0.82,1.73]
 Middle179(17.9)0.99[0.68,1.46]
 Richer204(20.5)0.97[0.67,1.40]
 Richest145(14.5)0.92[0.61,1.38]
Spouse years of education
 No education123(12.3)0.99[0.67,1.48]
 1–7 years541(54.1)1Reference
 8–11 years154(15.4)0.79[0.55,1.14]
 12+ years8(0.8)2.59[0.46,14.58]
 Missing173(17.3)0.92[0.65,1.30]
Spouse age
 17–21 years31(3.1)0.92[0.44,1.89]
 22–41 years642(64.3)1Reference
 42–61 years140(14.0)1.10[0.76,1.61]
 62+ years13(1.3)0.57[0.19,1.73]
 Missing173(17.3)0.96[0.86,1.35]
Decision making on childcare
 Mother244(24.4)0.94[0.69,1.28]
 Husband/partner140(14.0)0.63*[0.43,0.91]
 Joint decision561(56.1)1Reference
 Someone else54(5.4)0.96[0.54,1.70]
Household size
 1–6 people489(49.0)1Reference
 7–16 people459(45.9)1.21[0.93,1.57]
 17+ people51(5.1)1.23[0.68,2.22]
Number of other wives
 No co-wife686(68.7)1Reference
 One co-wife108(10.8)0.87[0.58,1.31]
 2+ co-wives32(3.2)0.81[0.40,1.65]
 Missing173(17.3)0.93[0.66,1.30]
Spouse occupation
 Casual/unskilled110(11.1)0.80[0.53,1.21]
 Agriculture498(49.8)1Reference
 Small scale business59(6.0)1.10[0.63,1.91]
 Skilled/professional158(15.9)0.85[0.59,1.22]
 Missing173(17.3)0.90[0.63,1.28]
Place of delivery
 Home339(34.0)1.04[0.77,1.36]
 TBA premises4(0.4)2.12[0.23,19.25]
 Public health facility539(54.0)1Reference
 Private health facility106(10.6)1.37[0.89,2.11]
 Other10(1.0)1.37[0.46,5.19]
Person performed a p/natal check-up
 Doctor26(2.6)0.29**[0.12,0.72]
 Nurse/Midwife254(25.5)1Reference
 TBA/CHW9(0.9)1.34[0.35,5.15]
 Relative/Friend21(2.1)0.41†[0.16,1.04]
 Missing p/natal check-up688(68.9)1.29†[0.96,1.73]
Distance from a health facility
 Big problem450(45.100.95[0.74,1.22]
 Not a big problem548(54.9)1Reference
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved470(47.1)1.25†[0.97,1.62]
 Improved529(52.9)1Reference
Type of place of residence
 Urban278(27.9)0.64**[0.49,0.85]
 Rural720(72.1)1Reference
  1. Source: Generated from TDHS 2015/2016
  2. * = P < 0.05; ** = P < 0.01 *** = P < 0.001; †=P < 0.10; TBA Traditional Birth Attendant, CHW Community Health Worker