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Table 5 Multinomial logistic regression using “breastfeeding for > 10 weeks” as reference category for Model 4

From: The role of prenatal food insecurity on breastfeeding behaviors: findings from the United States pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system

 Breastfeeding <  1 week, RRR (95% CI)Breastfeeding 1–3 weeks, RRR (95% CI)Breastfeeding 4–6 weeks, RRR (95% CI)Breastfeeding 7–9 weeks, RRR (95% CI)
Food insecurity
 Food secure (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Food insecure0.92 (0.61, 1.37)0.93 (0.72, 1.20)0.65** (0.50, 0.85)1.03 (0.79, 1.34)
Maternal age
 20–24 years old0.95 (0.60, 1.48)1.64** (1.23, 2.20)1.36* (1.04, 1.77)1.21 (0.91, 1.62)
 25–29 years old0.69 (0.45, 1.07)1.25 (0.95, 1.64)1.04 (0.82, 1.33)0.97 (0.74, 1.28)
 30–34 years old0.65 (0.41, 1.03)1.03 (0.78, 1.37)0.85 (0.66, 1.09)0.87 (0.66, 1.14)
 35+ years old (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
Income
 $0–$22,0001.40 (0.76, 2.58)1.21 (0.86, 1.72)1.14 (0.83, 1.57)1.53* (1.08, 2.17)
 $22,001-37,0000.95 (0.52, 1.73)1.00 (0.72, 1.40)0.89 (0.66, 1.20)1.31 (0.95, 1.82)
 $37,001-52,0001.35 (0.75, 2.42)1.13 (0.81, 1.56)0.96 (0.71, 1.30)1.14 (0.81, 1.59)
 $52,001-67,0000.95 (0.47, 1.93)1.17 (0.83, 1.67)1.01 (0.73, 1.39)0.90 (0.61, 1.33)
 $67,001+ (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
Marital status
 Married0.70* (0.51, 0.96)0.78** (0.64, 0.94)0.83* (0.69, 0.99)0.77** (0.63, 0.94)
 Not married (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
Years of maternal education
 0–11 years3.71** (1.98, 6.96)2.73** (1.93, 3.85)2.79** (2.01, 3.88)2.11** (1.48, 3.02)
 12 years5.18** (3.08, 8.70)3.03** (2.29, 4.00)3.36** (2.60, 4.34)2.53** (1.91, 3.35)
 13–15 years3.14** (1.92, 5.13)2.14** (1.66, 2.76)2.28** (1.81, 2.87)2.13** (1.66, 2.74)
 16+ years (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
Race/ethnicity
 NH White (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Hispanic0.61* (0.39, 0.96)0.95 (0.74, 1.23)1.00 (0.78, 1.26)1.05 (0.81, 1.35)
 NH Black0.46 (0.21, 1.00)0.81 (0.54, 1.21)1.01 (0.70, 1.44)1.02 (0.69, 1.50)
 NH Native American0.97 (0.56, 1.68)0.87 (0.59, 1.28)0.75 (0.50, 1.12)0.91 (0.61, 1.35)
 NH Other0.52 (0.26, 1.04)0.66* (0.44, 0.98)0.54** (0.35, 0.82)0.65* (0.42, 0.99)
 NH Asian0.27 (0.07, 1.10)0.79 (0.48, 1.31)1.11 (0.75, 1.66)1.24 (0.81, 1.91)
 Unknown Race0.62 (0.19, 2.02)0.63 (0.31, 1.27)0.87 (0.49, 1.55)0.48 (0.21, 1.11)
Insurance type
 Private insurance (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Government insurance1.13 (0.76, 1.66)1.00 (0.79, 1.26)0.86 (0.68, 1.07)1.03 (0.80, 1.31)
 Other insurance1.05 (0.31, 3.53)1.46 (0.80, 2.69)0.79 (0.40, 1.60)1.11 (0.55, 2.22)
 No insurance0.79 (0.49, 1.27)0.84 (0.64, 1.12)0.72* (0.55, 0.95)1.09 (0.82, 1.43)
HCW talked about breastfeeding before birth0.75 (0.52, 1.09)1.39* (1.07, 1.81)1.00 (0.80, 1.24)1.42* (1.09, 1.85)
 No (Ref.)1.001.001.0011.00
On WIC during pregnancy1.43* (1.01, 2.02)1.23 (1.00, 1.51)1.27* (1.04, 1.55)0.95 (0.77, 1.17)
 No (Ref.)1.001.001.0011.00
Experienced postpartum depression0.93 (0.61, 1.41)1.50** (1.19, 1.89)1.32* (1.05, 1.65)1.14 (0.89, 1.47)
 No (Ref.)1.001.001.0011.00
Number of stresses in 12 months before birth1.00 (0.93, 1.07)0.97 (0.93, 1.01)1.02 (0.98, 1.06)1.00 (0.96, 1.05)
Wanted to be pregnant
 Then (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Later1.24 (0.86, 1.78)1.10 (0.89, 1.35)0.99 (0.80, 1.22)1.08 (0.87, 1.34)
 Sooner1.09 (0.69, 1.72)0.99 (0.77, 1.28)1.16 (0.92, 1.45)0.92 (0.71, 1.20)
 Never1.99** (1.25, 3.16)0.83 (0.58, 1.19)1.05 (0.77, 1.45)0.73 (0.49, 1.06)
 Unsure1.10 (0.73, 1.66)1.04 (0.81, 1.33)1.15 (0.91, 1.45)1.02 (0.79, 1.31)
Vaginal delivery (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 No1.31 (0.96, 1.77)1.60** (1.34, 1.92)1.27** (1.07, 1.51)1.10 (0.91, 1.33)
Kotelchuck Index
 Inadequate0.89 (0.56, 1.41)1.05 (0.81, 1.37)0.83 (0.64, 1.08)1.05 (0.79, 1.38)
 Intermediate0.94 (0.60, 1.48)0.93 (0.71, 1.21)0.90 (0.70, 1.16)0.98 (0.74, 1.30)
 Adequate0.88 (0.65, 1.20)0.73** (0.61, 0.88)0.70** (0.59, 0.84)0.97 (0.80, 1.17)
 Adequate Plus (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
Hospital baby stay length
 0–2 days (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 3–5 days1.09 (0.79, 1.50)1.03 (0.85, 1.26)1.24* (1.03, 1.50)1.16 (0.94, 1.44)
 6 + days0.73 (0.46, 1.14)1.14 (0.89, 1.45)1.84** (1.49, 2.27)2.12** (1.69, 2.66)
Smoking at time of survey2.59** (1.88, 3.57)2.74** (2.22, 3.38)2.46** (2.01, 3.02)2.12** (1.69, 2.65)
No (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
  1. Note. CI confidence interval, HCW healthcare worker, NH non-Hispanic, RRR relative risk ratio, WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. The sample size is N = 9239