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Table 3 Results of binomial logistic regression predicting breastfeeding initiation

From: The role of prenatal food insecurity on breastfeeding behaviors: findings from the United States pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system

 Model 1, OR (95% CI)Model 2, OR (95% CI)Model 3, OR (95% CI)Model 4, OR (95% CI)
Food insecurity
 Food secure (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Food insecure0.67** (0.54, 0.82)1.09 (0.88, 1.36)1.09 (0.87, 1.37)1.17 (0.92, 1.48)
Maternal age
 20–24 years old 1.52** (1.18, 1.95)1.43** (1.11, 1.85)1.45** (1.12, 1.88)
 25–29 years old 1.18 (0.94, 1.49)1.14 (0.90, 1.44)1.16 (0.91, 1.47)
 30–34 years old 1.03 (0.81, 1.30)1.00 (0.79, 1.27)1.02 (0.80, 1.29)
 35+ years old (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
Income
 $0–$22,000 0.76 (0.55, 1.04)0.77 (0.56, 1.05)0.82 (0.59, 1.12)
 $22,001-37,000 1.07 (0.79, 1.46)1.08 (0.80, 1.47)1.08 (0.79, 1.46)
 $37,001-52,000 1.10 (0.80, 1.50)1.10 (0.80, 1.51)1.11 (0.81, 1.52)
 $52,001-67,000 0.89 (0.64, 1.24)0.91 (0.65, 1.26)0.92 (0.66, 1.28)
 $67,001+ (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
Marital status
 Married 1.39** (1.17, 1.64)1.38** (1.17, 1.64)1.29** (1.09, 1.54)
 Not married (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
Years of maternal education
 0–11 years 0.25** (0.18, 0.34)0.26** (0.19, 0.35)0.33** (0.24, 0.45)
 12 years 0.26** (0.20, 0.33)0.26** (0.20, 0.33)0.30** (0.23, 0.39)
 13–15 years 0.48** (0.38, 0.61)0.49** (0.39, 0.62)0.53** (0.41, 0.67)
 16+ years (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
Race/ethnicity
 NH White (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
 Hispanic 2.87** (2.21, 3.73)2.82** (2.17, 3.67)2.33** (1.79, 3.05)
 NH Black 1.36 (0.98, 1.89)1.38 (0.99, 1.92)1.22 (0.87, 1.71)
 NH Native American 2.98** (1.97, 4.53)3.00** (1.97, 4.55)2.56** (1.68, 3.92)
 NH Other 3.25** (1.97, 5.36)3.20** (1.94, 5.27)3.17** (1.92, 5.25)
 NH Asian 2.83** (1.60, 5.01)2.85** (1.61, 5.03)2.50** (1.41, 4.42)
 Unknown race/ethnicity 1.70 (0.92, 3.12)1.74 (0.94, 3.21)1.51 (0.82, 2.79)
Insurance type
 Private insurance (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
 Government insurance 0.75* (0.60, 0.93)0.75* (0.60, 0.94)0.81 (0.65, 1.01)
 Other insurance 0.36** (0.23, 0.58)0.37** (0.24, 0.59)0.38** (0.24, 0.60)
 No insurance 1.18 (0.90, 1.56)1.18 (0.90, 1.55)1.18 (0.89, 1.55)
HCW talked about breastfeeding before birth 1.70** (1.41, 2.05)1.69** (1.40, 2.03)1.68** (1.39, 2.03)
 No (Ref.) 1.001.001.00
On WIC during pregnancy 0.73** (0.61, 0.88)0.73** (0.61, 0.88)0.73** (0.60, 0.88)
 No (Ref.)  1.001.00
Experienced postpartum depression  0.81 (0.66, 1.00)0.82 (0.67, 1.01)
 No (Ref.)  1.001.00
Number of stresses in 12 months before birth  1.02 (0.98, 1.06)1.05* (1.01, 1.09)
Wanted to be pregnant
 Then (Ref.)  1.001.00
 Later  1.12 (0.92, 1.37)1.15 (0.94, 1.41)
 Sooner  1.04 (0.82, 1.31)1.03 (0.81, 1.30)
 Never  0.75* (0.57, 0.98)0.77 (0.58, 1.01)
 Unsure  0.90 (0.73, 1.11)0.96 (0.78, 1.19)
Vaginal delivery (Ref.)   1.00
 No   0.79** (0.67, 0.94)
Kotelchuck Index
 Inadequate   0.78* (0.61, 0.99)
 Intermediate   0.77* (0.61, 0.98)
 Adequate   1.04 (0.88, 1.24)
 Adequate Plus (Ref.)   1.00
Hospital baby stay length
 0–2 days (Ref.)   1.00
 3–5 days   1.08 (0.91, 1.30)
 6+ days   1.45** (1.15, 1.82)
Smoking at time of survey   0.43** (0.36, 0.52)
No (Ref.)   1.00
  1. Note. CI confidence interval, HCW healthcare worker, NH non-Hispanic, OR odds ratio, WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. The sample size is N = 10,159