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Table 2 Maternal characteristics, overall and by prenatal food security status

From: The role of prenatal food insecurity on breastfeeding behaviors: findings from the United States pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system

CharacteristicsOverall (N = 10, 159)Food Secure (n = 9, 190)Food Insecure (n = 969)T-test or χ2P-value
Breastfeeding initiation, No. (%)9246 (91.01)8397 (91.37)849 (87.62)0.00
Early breastfeeding cessation, No. (%)a
  <  1 week241 (2.61)203 (2.42)38 (4.48)0.00
 1–3 weeks747 (8.09)644 (7.68)103 (12.13) 
 4–6 weeks848 (9.18)761 (9.07)87 (10.25) 
 7–9 weeks687 (7.44)588 (7.01)99 (11.66) 
  ≥ 10 weeks6716 (72.69)6194 (73.83)522 (61.48) 
Grouped maternal age, No. (%)
 20–24 years old2279 (22.43)1884 (20.50)395 (40.76)0.00
 25–29 years old3158 (31.09)2882 (31.36)276 (28.48) 
 30–34 years old3021 (29.74)2830 (30.79)191 (19.71) 
 35+ years old1701 (16.74)1594 (17.34)107 (11.04) 
Income 12 months before, No. (%)
 $0–$22,0003390 (33.37)2736 (29.77)654 (67.49)0.00
 $22,001-37,0001685 (16.59)1487 (16.18)198 (20.43) 
 $37,001-52,0001178 (11.60)1096 (11.93)82 (8.46) 
 $52,001-67,000900 (8.86)878 (9.55)22 (2.27) 
 $67,001+3006 (29.59)2993 (32.57)13 (1.34) 
Marital status, No. (%)
 Not married3372 (33.19)2815 (30.63)557 (57.48)0.00
 Married6787 (66.81)6375 (69.37)412 (42.52) 
Years of maternal education, No. (%)
 0–11 years971 (9.56)823 (8.96)148 (15.27)0.00
 12 years2261 (22.26)1929 (20.99)332 (34.26) 
 13–15 years3105 (30.56)2724 (29.64)381 (39.32) 
 16+ years3822 (37.62)3714 (40.41)108 (11.15) 
Race/ethnicity, No. (%)
 Hispanic1283 (12.63)1151 (12.52)132 (13.62)0.33
 NH White7098 (69.87)6483 (70.54)615 (63.47)0.00
 NH Black402 (3.96)338 (3.68)64 (6.60)0.00
 NH Asian416 (4.09)399 (4.34)17 (1.75)0.00
 NH Native American374 (3.68)310 (3.37)64 (6.60)0.00
 NH Other422 (4.15)358 (3.90)64 (6.60)0.00
 Unknown race/ethnicity164 (1.61)151 (1.64)13 (1.34)0.48
Insurance type, No. (%)
 Government insurance3088 (30.40)2561 (27.87)527 (54.39)0.00
 Private insurance5578 (54.91)5357 (58.29)221 (22.81)0.00
 Other insurance149 (1.47)132 (1.44)17 (1.75)0.43
 No insurance1344 (13.23)1140 (12.40)204 (21.05)0.00
Healthcare worker talked about breastfeeding before birth, No. (%)8641 (85.06)7808 (84.96)833 (85.96)0.40
On WIC during pregnancy, No. (%)4053 (39.90)3369 (36.66)684 (70.59)0.00
Experienced postpartum depression, No. (%)1111 (10.94)856 (9.31)255 (26.32)0.00
Number of stresses in 12 months before birth, mean (SD)1.99 (2.02)1.74 (1.81)4.32 (2.42)0.00
Wanted to be pregnant, No. (%)
 Later2061 (20.29)1779 (19.36)282 (29.10)0.00
 Sooner1513 (14.89)1416 (15.41)97 (10.01)0.00
 Then4665 (45.92)4398 (47.86)267 (27.55)0.00
 Never591 (5.82)479 (5.21)112 (11.56)0.00
 Unsure1329 (13.08)1118 (12.17)211 (21.78)0.00
Vaginal delivery, No. (%)6774 (66.68)6119 (66.58)655 (67.60)0.52
Kotelchuck Index, No. (%)
 Inadequate1028 (10.12)857 (9.33)171 (17.65)0.00
 Intermediate1175 (11.57)1067 (11.61)108 (11.15) 
 Adequate4441 (43.71)4070 (44.29)371 (38.29) 
 Adequate Plus3515 (34.60)3196 (34.78)319 (32.92) 
Hospital baby stay length grouped, No. (%)
 0–2 days5967 (58.74)5439 (59.18)528 (54.49)0.02
 3–5 days2698 (26.56)2419 (26.32)279 (28.79) 
 6+ days1494 (14.71)1332 (14.49)162 (16.72) 
Smoking at time of survey, No. (%)1526 (15.20)1176 (12.80)350 (36.12)0.00
  1. Note.NH non-Hispanic, SD standard deviation, WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; aEarly breastfeeding cessation analysis excludes respondents who did not initiate breastfeeding (n = 913) and those who were still breastfeeding at the time of the survey but completed the survey before 10 weeks post birth (n = 7). Thus, the early breastfeeding cessation sample size is N = 9239 for overall, n = 8390 for food secure, and n = 849 for food insecure. Percentages within this category are calculated based on these sample sizes