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Table 3 IIFAS-AO items with means (SD), reliability results, and principal component factor loadings

From: Adaptation and validation of the Iowa infant feeding attitude scale and the breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire for use in an Ethiopian setting

ItemsMean (SD)ρα*Loading
1. The benefits of breastfeeding last only as long as the baby is breastfed.a3.91 (1.08)0.300.710.40
2. Formula feeding is more convenient than breastfeeding.a3.83 (1.14)0.300.710.42
3. Breastfeeding increases mother–infant bonding.4.23 (0.78)0.260.720.35
4. Breast milk is lacking in iron.a3.00 (1.28)0.130.730.16
5. Formula-fed babies are more likely to be overfed than breastfed babies.3.62 (1.19)0.410.700.53
6. Formula feeding is the better choice if the mother plans to go back to work.a3.88 (1.05)0.350.710.47
7. Mothers who formula feed miss one of the great joys of motherhood.4.27 (0.78)0.350.710.49
8. Women should not breastfeed in public places such as restaurants.a3.73 (1.28)0.450.700.58
9. Breastfed babies are healthier than formula-fed babies.4.10 (0.92)0.300.710.45
10. Breastfed babies are more likely to be overfed than formula-fed babies.a3.93 (1.01)0.340.710.45
11. Fathers feel left out if a mother breastfeeds.a3.02 (1.19)0.160.730.18
12. Breast milk is the ideal food for babies.4.25 (0.82)0.270.720.40
13. Breast milk is more easily digested than formula.4.16 (0.86)0.340.710.50
14. Formula is as healthy for an infant as breast milk.a3.97 (0.97)0.380.710.54
15. Breastfeeding is more convenient than formula.3.95 (1.04)0.370.710.51
16. Breast milk is cheaper than formula.4.13 (0.89)0.270.720.39
17. A mother who occasionally drinks alcohol should not breastfeed her baby.a3.68 (1.27)0.360.710.50
Mean (SD) and Cronbach’s alpha (α) for total IIFAS-AO score65.7 (7.64) 0.72 
  1. aReverse-scored items. IIFAS-AO: Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale-Afan Oromo
  2. Abbreviations: α, Cronbach’s alpha for total IIFAS score based on the 17 attitude items; α*, Cronbach’s alpha if an item is removed; ρ, item-rest (corrected item-total) correlation for IIFAS items