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Table 2 BFKQ-AO items and their principal component factor loadings for corresponding domains

From: Adaptation and validation of the Iowa infant feeding attitude scale and the breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire for use in an Ethiopian setting

Domains Items Loadings
Advantages to baby (Factor 1) Breastfeeding reduces the risk of lung infection among babies. (bf1) 0.48
Breastfeeding increases the baby’s intelligence. (bf2) 0.71
Breastfeeding helps to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect. (bf3) 0.63
Baby who received breastfeeding is less prone to get diarrhea. (bf4) 0.40
Advantages to mother (Factor 2) Exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial in spacing birth. (bf7) 0.50
Breastfeeding helps to stimulate uterine contraction. (bf8) 0.79
Breastfeeding reduces bleeding that occurs after childbirth. (bf9) 0.77
Mothers who practised breastfeeding may achieve pre-pregnancy weight faster. (bf10) 0.48
Frequent breastfeeding may prevent breast engorgement. (bf11) 0.29
Colostrum (Factor 3) Colostrum is difficult to digest and needs to be discarded., median (IQR)* (bf15) 0.89
Colostrum causes constipation among babies., median (IQR)* (bf16) 0.90
Effective feeding (Factor 4) Babies will gain weight if they receive effective feeding. (bf18) 0.31
Correct positioning helps to achieve effective breastfeeding. (bf19) 0.70
Correct positioning helps to achieve effective breastfeeding. (bf20) 0.80
Babies sleep well after they receive adequate breastfeeding. (bf21) 0.77
Breastmilk expression (Factor 5) Breast milk expression may be done every 3 h. (bf22) 0.77
An expressed breastmilk can stay up to 8 h without getting spoiled. (bf23) 0.83
It is necessary to express breast milk from one side of the breast only.* (bf24) 0.85
Expressed breast milk may be mixed with the previous expressed milk.* (bf25) 0.84
Expressed breast milk may be warmed on a fire.* (bf26) 0.78
The leftover expressed breast milk that has been used may be stored again.* (bf27) 0.59
Duration of feeding (Factor 6) Breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min after delivery. (bf28) 0.48
Breastfeeding should be given on demand. (bf29) 0.67
Baby should be allowed to breastfeed for at least 10–20 min for each fe. (bf30) 0.63
Breastfeeding should be continued up to 2 years even though the baby has re. (bf31) 0.65
Problem with breastfeeding (Factor 7) Breastfeeding must be discontinued if mother has cracked nipple.* (bf34) 0.67
Breastfeeding must be discontinued if mother has breast engorgement.* (bf36) 0.69
Breast engorgement (Factor 8) Breast engorgement may be reduced with cold packs. (bf37) 0.66
The use of cabbage may help to reduce breast engorgement. (bf39) 0.76
Massage may reduce breast engorgement. (bf40) 0.34
Practical aspects of breastfeeding (Factor 9) Exclusive breastfeeding must be practiced until the infant is 6 months old. (bf41) 0.38
Giving water to baby is encouraged after every breastfeeding.* (bf42) 0.35
Belching after feeding shows that the baby is full. (bf43) 0.77
Babies who get enough feeding will pass urine more frequently. (bf44) 0.73
  1. *Reverse coded items. BFKQ-AO: Breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire-Afan Oromo
  2. Extraction method: principal components analysis. Rotation method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Twelve items were excluded since their loadings were < 0.25