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Table 2 Occurrences of CPA strategies and practices used by Nestlé during the period January to November 2018

From: Corporate political activity of the baby food industry: the example of Nestlé in the United States of America

CPA strategies and practicesTotal occurrences
Coalition management69
 Establish relationships with key opinion leaders and health organisations44
 Seek involvement in the community20
 Establish relationships with the media3
 Constituency fabrication0
 Constituency recruitment – internal2
 Opposition fragmentation and destabilization0
Information management281
 Production48
 Amplification231
 Suppression0
 Credibility2
Direct involvement and influence in policy25
 Indirect access17
 Incentives0
 Threats0
 Actor in government decision making8
Legal actions0
 Use legal action against public policies or opponents0
 Influence the development of trade and investment agreements0
Discursive strategies63
 The economy1
 Governance0
 Expected food industry costs0
 Frame the debate on diet- and public health related issues62
Total occurrences438