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Table 2 Factors associated with initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, EDHS 2011 (N = 5122)

From: Trends and factors associated to early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding in Ethiopia: evidence from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016

Background characteristics/Covariates Categories Early initiation of breastfeeding in the 1st hour Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months
OR 95% CI for OR OR 95% CI for OR
Region (Dire Dawa) Tigray 4.71 2.32, 9.53 0.460 0.23, 0.92
Affar 13.81 7.11, 26.81 5.972 3.53, 10.11
Amhara 5.30 2.65, 10.59 0.524 0.27, 1.00
Oromiya 2.40 1.22, 4.71 0.390 0.21, 0 .72
Somali 3.63 1.86, 7.08 6.442 3.85, 10.78
Benish.Gumuz 4.32 2.18, 8.53 0.404 0.21, 0 .79
SNNPR 2.50 1.24, 5.04 0.818 0.43, 1.54
Gambela 3.78 1.80, 7.90 0.913 0.45, 1.85
Harari 1.19 0.54, 2.64 3.563 2.04, 6.23
Addis Ababa 3.66 1.64, 8.17 2.062 1.03, 4.14
Residence (Rural) Urban 0.71 0.51, 0.99 0.802 0.57, 1.13
Maternal age (40+) ≤ 24 1.14 0.77, 1.68 1.101 0.71, 1.70
25–29 1.01 0.74, 1.37 1.046 0.73, 1.50
30–34 1.04 0.78, 1.38 1.412 1.02, 1.96
35–39 1.04 0.79, 1.37 1.095 0.79, 1.52
Husband education (Secondary / Higher) No education 1.42 0.90, 2.24 1.289 0.81, 2.06
Primary 1.52 0.98, 2.36 1.206 0.77, 1.90
Mother education (Higher) No education 1.06 0.68, 1.63 0.781 0.51, 1.20
Primary 0.91 0.59, 1.40 0.622 0.40, 0.96
  Secondary 1.24 0.79, 1.93 0.878 0.56, 1.38
Religion (Traditional /Others) Coptic orthodox 1.89 1.02, 3.50 1.836 0.86, 3.92
Protestant 1.62 0.88, 2.97 0.956 0.45, 2.03
Muslim 1.43 0.78, 2.63 1.143 0.54, 2.43
Wealth index (Richest) Poorest 1.26 0.86, 1.83 1.329 0.86, 2.05
Poorer 1.13 0.77, 1.67 1.014 0.64, 1.60
Middle 0.95 0.64, 1.42 1.019 0.64, 1.62
Richer 1.08 0.73, 1.60 1.173 0.75, 1.84
Sex of child (Female) Male 1.18 1.01, 1.37 1.163 0.98, 1.38
delivery place (Health) Home 1.55 1.25, 1.91 1.555 1.22, 1.99
Baby postnatal (Yes) No 0.75 0.57, 0.99 0.531 0.39, 0.73
Antenatal visits (4+) 0 0.97 0.78, 1.21 1.495 1.15, 1.95
1–3 1.05 0.85, 1.29 1.372 1.07, 1.77
Mode of delivery (Caesarian) Normal 0.10 0.06, 0.15 0.386 0.23, 0.64
Type of birth (Multiple birth) Single 0.77 0.92, 0.53 0.597 0.33, 1.07
Size of child at birth (Small) Large 0.94 0.77, 1.15 0.931 0.74, 1.17
Average 0.80 0.66, 0.96 0.800 0.65, 0.99
Employment status (employed) Not working 0.96 0.80, 1.15 0.836 0.68, 1.03
Parity (7+) 1–2 0.69 0.49, 0.97 0.847 0.58, 1.23
3–4 0.85 0.66, 1.10 0.916 0.69, 1.22
5–6 0.91 0.73, 1.15 0.893 0.69, 1.16