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Table 1 Background characteristics of mothers and children, EDHS 2011 (N = 5122)

From: Trends and factors associated to early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding in Ethiopia: evidence from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016

Background characteristics/CovariatesCategoriesN (%)Early initiation of breastfeeding in the 1st hourExclusive breastfeeding for 6 months
Early initiation (%)Delayed (%)Yes (%)No (%)
RegionTigray497 (9.7)78.921.14852
Affar459 (9)54.745.330.571.5
Amhara578 (11.3)75.124.958.841.2
Oromiya771 (15.1)88.611.451.248.8
Somali620 (12.1)83.716.327.772.3
Benishangul-Gumuz449 (8.8)81.318.753.746.3
SNNPR684 (13.4)87.912.153.246.8
Gambela339 (6.6)83.216.857.242.8
Harari285 (5.6)93.76.339.360.7
Addis Ababa200 (3.9)84164951
Dire Dawa240 (4.7)95.44.649.650.4
Place of ResidenceRural4278 (83.5)80.619.447.252.7
Urban844 (16.5)87.812.246.753.3
Maternal age≤ 24754 (14.7%)81.818.23763
25–291522 (29.7)83.216.844.365.7
30–341306 (25.5)82.317.745.654.4
35–39985 (19.2)80.719.354.245.8
40 and higher555 (10.8)78.921.159.840.2
Husband educationNo education3520 (68.7)80.319.746.653.4
Primary1187 (23.2)84.215.848.461.6
Secondary / Higher415 (8.1)881248.251.8
Mother educationNo education2675 (52.2)78.421.64753
Primary1645 (32.1)85.914.148.351.7
Secondary450 (8.8)83.116.943.356.7
Higher352 (6.9)87.212.847.752.3
ReligionCoptic orthodox1561 (30.5)79.420.653.446.6
Protestant951 (18.6)85.614.454.445.6
Muslim2486 (48.5)81.518.540.359.7
Traditional/Others124 (2.4)88.711.349.250.8
Wealth indexPoorest1820 (35.5)75.324.741.249.6
Poorer901 (17.6)83.516.552.947.1
Middle769 (15)85.714.351.949.1
Richer679 (13.3)84.515.551.348.7
Richest953 (18.6)87.612.449.450.6
Sex of childMale2616 (51.1)80.319.647.552.5
Female2506 (48.9)83.416.646.853.2
Place of deliveryHome3345 (65.3)79.420.647.452.6
Health1777 (34.7)86.313.746.653.4
Baby postnatal checkupNo4686 (91.5)821847.152.9
Yes436 (8.5)79.820.247.752.3
Antenatal visits01927 (37.6)79.720.34753
1–31509 (26.5)81.518.545.754.3
4+1686 (32.9)84.515.548.651.4
Mode of deliveryNormal4992 (97.5)82.527.547.252.8
Caesarian130 (2.5)56.243.843.856.2
Type of birthSingle birth5035 (98.3)821847.152.9
Multiple birth87 (1.7)73.626.448.351.7
Size of child at birthLarge (>  4 kg)1560 (30.5)83.616.449.450.6
Average (2.5-4 kg)2186 (42.7)83.716.347.652.4
Small (< 2.5 kg)1376 (26.9)76.923.143.956.1
Employment statusNot working3669 (71.6)80.319.745.854.2
Working1453 (28.4)83.716.350.649.3
Parity1–21061 (20.7)84.915.145.954.1
3–41687 (32.9)82.217.84753
5–61225 (23.9)81.218.848.951.1
7+1149 (22.4)792146.653.4
Total  81.818.247.152.9