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Table 1 Demographic details of participants

From: The effect of breastfeeding on postpartum glucose tolerance and lipid profiles in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  GDM (cases) No GDM (controls)
n 159 84
GDM treatment Diet 92 (57.9%) N/A
Medical 67 (42.1%)
Maternal age (years) 33.73 (31.06, 36.68) 32.33 (29.61, 34.71)
Maternal BMI at sample collection (kg/m2) 27.1 (23.8, 31.1) 26.4 (24.1, 29.1)
Maternal BMI
 Normal Weight 61 (38.6%) 27 (32.9%)
 Overweight 53 (33.5%) 36 (43.9%)
 Class I Obesity 21 (13.3%) 13 (15.9%)
 Class II Obesity 16 (10.1%) 3 (3.7%)
 Class III Obesity 7 (4.4%) 3 (3.7%)
Weight gain in pregnancy (kg) 10 (6, 13.5) 14 (10, 15.25)
Current smoker 3 (1.9%) 4 (4.8%)
Nulliparous 104 (65.4%) 45 (53.6%)
Maternal ethnicity Caucasian 84 (52.8%) 67 (79.8%)
Family history of increased cholesterol 62 (39.0%) 33 (39.3%)
Family history of hypertension 81 (50.9%) 31 (37.0%)
Family history of CVD 29 (18.2%) 18 (21.4%)
Family history of diabetes 58 (36.4%) 27 (32.1%)
Exclusive breastfeedinga 106 (66.67%) 65 (77.38%)
  1. Data depicted as number (%) or median (IQR), data missing for 1 participant in the GDM group and for 2 participants in the control group for maternal BMI
  2. Medical management for GDM included either insulin (65) or metformin (2) use
  3. BMI classified as per WHO guidelines
  4. aDefined in Methods