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Table 7 Effects of interventions on women of different parity

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Setting of intervention Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 Primiparous 1 trial 16/50 (32.0%) 21/50 (42.0%) RR 0.76 (0.45 to 1.28) 101 fewer per 1000 (from 118 more to 231 fewer) Very low
 Primiparous and multiparous 5 trials 987/1755 (56.2%) 1109/1682 (65.9%) RR 0.79 (0.56 to 1.11) 138 fewer per 1000 (from 73 more to 290 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Primiparous 9 trials (10 comparisons) 342/1473 (23.2%) 335/1296 (25.8%) RR 0.85 (0.67 to 1.08) 39 fewer per 1000 (from 21 more to 85 fewer) Low
 Primiparous and multiparous 19 trials (20 comparisons) 834/2641 (31.6%) 955/2684 (35.6%) RR 0.87 (0.78 to 0.96) 46 fewer per 1000 (from 14 fewer to 78 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Primiparous 6 trials 322/521 (61.8%) 357/525 (68.0%) RR 0.84 (0.68 to 1.04) 109 fewer per 1000 (from 27 more to 218 fewer) Low
 Primiparous and multiparous 18 trials (20 comparisons) 2694/4781 (56.3%) 1899/3304 (57.5%) RR 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) 34 fewer per 1000 (from 6 fewer to 63 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Primiparous 10 trials (11 comparisons) 948/1625 (58.3%) 772/1276 (60.5%) RR 0.88 (0.77 to 1.00) 73 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 139 fewer) Low
 Primiparous and multiparous 20 trials (24 comparisons) 1355/2679 (50.6%) 1639/2458 (66.7%) RR 0.75 (0.65 to 0.86) 167 fewer per 1000 (from 93 fewer to 233 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Primiparous 7 trials 425/688 (61.8%) 482/687 (70.2%) RR 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97) 105 fewer per 1000 (from 21 fewer to 175 fewer) Moderate
 Primiparous and multiparous 23 trials (26 comparisons) 3275/4598 (71.2%) 3838/4364 (87.9%) RR 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) 167 fewer per 1000 (from 88 fewer to 237 fewer) Low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 Primiparous 2 trials 59/127 (46.5%) 67/104 (64.4%) RR 0.67 (0.49 to 0.91) 213 fewer per 1000 (from 58 fewer to 329 fewer) Moderate
 Primiparous and multiparous 2 trials 340/538 (63.2%) 390/532 (73.3%) RR 0.84 (0.71 to 1.00) 117 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 213 fewer) Moderate