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Table 6 Effects of interventions in different settings

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Setting of intervention Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 Urban 2 trials 80/300 (26.7%) 117/272 (43.0%) RR 0.59 (0.39 to 0.91) 176 fewer per 1000 (from 39 fewer to 262 fewer) Low
 Rural 1 trial 378/392 (96.4%) 388/402 (96.5%) RR 1.00 (0.97 to 1.03) 0 fewer per 1000 (from 29 fewer to 29 more) Moderate
 Urban and rural 2 trials 460/931 (49.4%) 455/854 (53.3%) RR 0.91 (0.64 to 1.29) 48 fewer per 1000 (from 155 more to 192 fewer) Very low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Urban 21 trials (23 comparisons) 978/3428 (28.5%) 984/3032 (32.5%) RR 0.85 (0.76 to 0.96) 49 fewer per 1000 (from 13 fewer to 78 fewer) Low
 Rural 1 trial 12/25 (48.0%) 7/25 (28.0%) RR 1.71 (0.81 to 3.63) 199 more per 1000 (from 53 fewer to 736 more) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Urban 19 trials (20 comparisons) 1444/2680 (53.9%) 1418/2496 (56.8%) RR 0.91 (0.84 to 0.98) 51 fewer per 1000 (from 11 fewer to 91 fewer) Low
 Rural 2 trials 57/180 (31.7%) 62/203 (30.5%) RR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.29) 9 more per 1000 (from 55 fewer to 89 more) Moderate
 Urban and rural 1 trial 81/135 (60.0%) 79/135 (58.5%) RR 1.03 (0.84 to 1.25) 18 more per 1000 (from 94 fewer to 146 more) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Urban 23 trials (28 comparisons) 2031/3561 (57.0%) 1893/2810 (67.4%) RR 0.81 (0.74 to 0.89) 128 fewer per 1000 (from 74 fewer to 175 fewer) Low
 Rural 1 trial 17/25 (68.0%) 13/25 (52.0%) RR 1.31 (0.82 to 2.08) 161 more per 1000 (from 94 fewer to 562 more) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Urban 18 trials (21 comparisons) 1757/2500 (70.3%) 1697/2181 (77.8%) RR 0.87 (0.81 to 0.93) 101 fewer per 1000 (from 54 fewer to 148 fewer) Low
 Rural 2 trials 284/611 (46.5%) 542/617 (87.8%) RR 0.55 (0.15 to 1.95) 395 fewer per 1000 (from 747 fewer to 835 more) Very low
 Urban and rural 3 trials 984/1251 (78.7%) 1130/1188 (95.1%) RR 0.77 (0.47 to 1.24) 219 fewer per 1000 (from 228 more to 504 fewer) Very low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 Urban 3 trials 371/573 (64.7%) 424/568 (74.6%) RR 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94) 97 fewer per 1000 (from 45 fewer to 149 fewer) Moderate