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Table 5 Effects of different providers of interventions

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Provider of intervention Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 Lay 5 trials 987/1755 (56.2%) 1109/1682 (65.9%) RR 0.79 (0.56 to 1.11) 138 fewer per 1000 (from 73 more to 290 fewer) Low
 Non-lay 2 trials 51/158 (32.3%) 79/136 (58.1%) RR 0.58 (0.37 to 0.90) 244 fewer per 1000 (from 58 fewer to 366 fewer) Moderate
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Lay 4 trials 157/458 (34.3%) 177/438 (40.4%) RR 0.82 (0.62 to 1.10) 73 fewer per 1000 (from 40 more to 154 fewer) Low
 Non-lay 24 trials (26 comparisons) 1018/3596 (28.3%) 1111/3468 (32.0%) RR 0.86 (0.77 to 0.96) 45 fewer per 1000 (from 13 fewer to 74 fewer) Low
 Both lay and non-lay 1 trial 57/168 (33.9%) 69/160 (43.1%) RR 0.79 (0.60 to 1.04) 91 fewer per 1000 (from 17 more to 173 fewer) Very low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Lay 3 trials 123/257 (47.9%) 162/248 (65.3%) RR 0.71 (0.48 to 1.04) 189 fewer per 1000 (from 26 more to 340 fewer) Moderate
 Non-lay 23 trials (24 comparisons) 2359/4158 (56.7%) 1963/3354 (58.5%) RR 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) 35 fewer per 1000 (from 6 fewer to 64 fewer) Low
 Both lay and non-lay 3 trials 717/1141 (62.8%) 316/464 (68.1%) RR 0.95 (0.88 to 1.02) 34 fewer per 1000 (from 14 more to 82 fewer) Moderate
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Lay 8 trials (9 comparisons) 382/930 (41.1%) 690/1011 (68.2%) RR 0.64 (0.42 to 0.97) 246 fewer per 1000 (from 20 fewer to 396 fewer) Low
 Non-lay 21 trials (24 comparisons) 1851/3105 (59.6%) 1626/2576 (63.1%) RR 0.91 (0.85 to 0.96) 57 fewer per 1000 (from 25 fewer to 95 fewer) Low
 Both lay and non-lay 1 trial (2 comparisons) 67/240 (27.9%) 50/120 (41.7%) RR 0.67 (0.50 to 0.90) 137 fewer per 1000 (from 42 fewer to 208 fewer) Moderate
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Lay 10 trials 1241/2219 (55.9%) 1937/2271 (85.3%) RR 0.67 (0.30 to 1.51) 281 fewer per 1000 (from 435 more to 597 fewer) Very low
 Non-lay 19 trials 21 comparisons) 2314/2827 (81.9%) 2267/2660 (85.2%) RR 0.97 (0.94 to 0.99) 26 fewer per 1000 (from 9 fewer to 51 fewer) Low
 Both lay and non-lay 2 trials (3 comparisons) 160/261 (61.3%) 133/140 (95.0%) RR 0.61 (0.18 to 2.05) 371 fewer per 1000 (from 779 fewer to 997 more) Very low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 Lay 2 trials 115/259 (44.4%) 155/260 (59.6%) RR 0.65 (0.34 to 1.23) 209 fewer per 1000 (from 137 more to 393 fewer) Low
 Non-lay 3 trials 288/490 (58.8%) 313/461 (67.9%) RR 0.77 (0.57 to 1.03) 156 fewer per 1000 (from 20 more to 292 fewer) Moderate