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Table 4 Effects of different modes of interventions

From: Counselling interventions to enable women to initiate and continue breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mode of intervention Number of trials No of events Effect Certainty
Intervention Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Number of women who do not initiate breastfeeding within 1 h of birth
 Face-to-face 6 trials 1022/1863 (54.9%) 1167/1768 (66.0%) RR 0.73 (0.52 to 1.03) 178 fewer per 1000 (from 20 more to 317 fewer) Very low
 Face-to-face and telephone 1 trial 16/50 (32.0%) 21/50 (42.0%) RR 0.76 (0.45 to 1.28) 101 fewer per 1000 (from 118 more to 231 fewer) Very low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Face-to-face 10 trials (11 comparisons) 520/1586 (32.8%) 594/1644 (36.1%) RR 0.86 (0.75 to 1.00) 51 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 90 fewer) Low
 Telephone 4 trials 135/700 (19.3%) 120/531 (22.6%) RR 0.75 (0.61 to 0.93) 56 fewer per 1000 (from 16 fewer to 88 fewer) Moderate
 Face-to-face and telephone 16 trials 577/1936 (29.8%) 643/1891 (34.0%) RR 0.86 (0.73 to 1.01) 48 fewer per 1000 (from 3 more to 92 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop any breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Face-to-face 13 trials (14 comparisons) 893/1541 (57.9%) 1001/1542 (64.9%) RR 0.89 (0.81 to 0.98) 71 fewer per 1000 (from 13 fewer to 123 fewer) Low
 Telephone 2 trials 52/234 (22.2%) 71/237 (30.0%) RR 0.74 (0.55 to 1.00) 78 fewer per 1000 (from 0 fewer to 135 fewer) Moderate
 Face-to-face and telephone 15 trials (16 comparisons) 2264/3865 (58.6%) 1404/2370 (59.2%) RR 0.95 (0.88 to 1.02) 30 fewer per 1000 (from 12 more to 71 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 weeks postpartum
 Face-to-face 13 trials (17 comparisons) 1019/1923 (53.0%) 1200/1627 (73.8%) RR 0.67 (0.56 to 0.81) 243 fewer per 1000 (from 140 fewer to 325 fewer) Low
 Telephone 4 trials 440/827 (53.2%) 341/593 (57.5%) RR 0.72 (0.55 to 0.95) 161 fewer per 1000 (from 29 fewer to 259 fewer) Moderate
 Face-to-face and telephone 15 trials 855/1587 (53.9%) 883/1549 (57.0%) RR 0.96 (0.86 to 1.07) 23 fewer per 1000 (from 40 more to 80 fewer) Low
Number of women who stop exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum
 Face-to-face 21 trials (24 comparisons) 2587/3887 (66.6%) 3196/3653 (87.5%) RR 0.74 (0.63 to 0.87) 227 fewer per 1000 (from 114 fewer to 324 fewer) Low
 Telephone 3 trials 285/342 (83.3%) 306/355 (86.2%) RR 0.96 (0.83 to 1.12) 34 fewer per 1000 (from 103 more to 147 fewer) Low
 Face-to-face and telephone 9 trials 875/1162 (75.3%) 901/1146 (78.6%) RR 0.96 (0.91 to 1.01) 31 fewer per 1000 (from 8 more to 71 fewer) Low
Number of infants fed with bottles during the first 6 months postpartum
 Face-to-face 2 trials 115/259 (44.4%) 155/260 (59.6%) RR 0.65 (0.34 to 1.23) 209 fewer per 1000 (from 137 more to 393 fewer) Low
 Face-to-face and telephone 3 trials 288/490 (58.8%) 313/461 (67.9%) RR 0.77 (0.57 to 1.03) 156 fewer per 1000 (from 20 more to 292 fewer) Low